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OR Geographic Information System Plan

The Oregon Geographic Information System Plan  
compiled and edited by:
Debbie E. Balsley and Scott E. Smith
 
March 1996
Chair: Mike Zanon, Department of Administrative Services
OGIS Plan
as MS WORD document



For additional copies, write:
Geospatial Enterprise Office
955 Center Street
Salem, OR 97310
 
Table of Contents
 
Executive Summary
Approvals
Vision Statement
GIS Benchmarks
History
 
Appendices
A - Executive Order
B - Oregon State Government Efforts and Investments: Data, Technology and Projects
C - Progress Gantt Chart
D - Plan Maintenance Procedures
E - Policy and Standards
F - What is GIS?
G - Acronyms and Glossary of Terms
H - Agency GIS Plans
I - Workgroup Reports
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OREGON GIS PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
March 1996
 
Information is the currency of the new millennium. Those who manage it well will prosper-those who don´t will stumble. In government, the challenges are amplified. Increased demand for services and limited revenues require policy makers at all levels to aptly wield information to determine priorities, measure program performance, and speed delivery of services. This requires careful planning, unprecedented cooperation, and appropriate use of technology.
 
The Oregon GIS community has long recognized the value of cooperation and thoughtful planning. GIS managers and users at all levels of state, local, and federal government have regularly come together in Oregon to identify common data needs and to pool resources for the benefit of all. And while GIS technology is becoming more pervasive and simpler to use, data acquisition and management, training, and staffing costs remain high. In order to maximize our ability to respond to growing information demands and avoid costly duplication, planning must be ongoing. Executive Order EO-94-16 directed the Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) to "...Provide a policy, planning, and assessment role on geographic information issues..."
 
To that end, in 1995, OGIC facilitated a multi-month GIS planning process that included representatives from a number of state, local, and federal government organizations. This plan represents the insights and good thinking of many of the state´s leading GIS experts.
 
Participants in the planning process identified and prioritized strategies and goals. A subsequent review by peers in many different GIS organizations helped to refine and clarify the goals and strategies outlined in the following pages. The OGIC Executive Council identified lead responsibility and target dates for accomplishing each of the strategies identified for the plan.
 
While a great amount of work has been completed, much more remains. Workplans are being developed for each strategy and will be included with this plan as they are completed. It was agreed, that for this effort to be successful, there should be a dynamic, ongoing planning cycle. To facilitate this, OGIC will revisit and update this plan on an annual basis.
 
This plan should serve as a roadmap to prioritize our efforts and guide our behavior as we invest in and use GIS technology. If we are diligent and allow our actions to adhere to the goals and strategies contained within this plan, we should be able to make significant progress toward the GIS Vision on the following pages. The efforts to date and the ones described in this plan should help us maximize our investment in GIS and improve our ability to serve all Oregonians.
 
As with any planning effort, the process was as valuable as the product. Relationships were built. Common initiatives and data needs were discovered. An appreciation was gained for the good work that has been done and is going on many different organizations. Enthusiasm and a vision was generated for the potential of this exciting technology. While these outcomes aren´t normally listed in the pages of a plan, they are vitally important to the ongoing efforts to work cooperatively and interdependently for the benefit of all.
 
Table of Contents
 

Approved:
 
Mike Zanon, Chair
Oregon Geographic Information Council
Department of Administrative Services
 
John McGinn, Administrator
Administrative Service Division
Department of Agriculture
 
Lisa Strader, Information Administrator
Planning and Budget
Department of Corrections
 
Tom Lynch, Work Force Policy Advisor
Research, Tax and Analysis
Employment Department
 
Ed Wallace, Manager
Business Systems
Department of Environmental Quality
 
Jill Zarnowitz, Chief
Habitat Conservation Division
Department of Fish and Wildlife
 
Dave Stere, Director
Forest Resources Planning
Department of Forestry
 
Donald Hull, State GeoloGISt
Administrative and Business Office
Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries
 
Gary Potter, Project Manager
Office of Information Services
Department of Human Resources
 
Nancy Rockwell, Deputy Director
Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
 
Jim Manary, Administrator
Property Tax Division
Department of Revenue
 
John Lilly, Assistant Director
Division of State Lands
 
Dave White, Manager
Network and Desktop Services
Department of Transportation
 
Barry Norris, Administrator
Technical & Field Services Division
Water Resources Department
 
Theresa Valentine, Manager
State Service Center for GIS
Department of Administrative Services
 
Bob Swank, Associate Director
Lane Council of Governments
 
Dean Anderson, GIS Coordinator
Polk County
 
Alan Mikuni, Chief
Western Mapping Center
US Geological Survey
 
Table of Contents
 

 
A Vision for GIS in Oregon
 
GIS has and will continue to be a powerful tool for government to use to meet the needs of the citizens of Oregon. By the end of the decade, GIS data and tools will be readily available and extensively used by every government organization in the state. Government managers and policy-makers will rely on GIS for decision-making, policy development, and customer service.
 
All government data will have a spatial reference and be related to a common reference system. GIS data will adhere to agreed upon statewide data standards. The state´s parcel base will be complete and will provide the foundation for most GIS transactions, and all addresses will have a geographic component. Advances in remote sensing will allow the state to have affordable, up-to-date, high resolution spatial information. Integration of tabular, digital map, document image, and remotely captured image data will be commonplace. A centralized statewide GIS data administration organization will catalog and manage the state´s vast quantity of GIS data. Access to these data will be readily available and affordable to all government users via a high speed ubiquitous telecommunications infrastructure.
 
It is expected that GIS technologies will merge with other multimedia technologies resulting in new and innovative ways to view and interact with data. GIS data browsers that allow three-dimensional views of spatial data and multimedia transactions will be as common as word processing packages on PCs today.
 
Funding for GIS programs and user training will be adequate and secure. Public-public and public-private partnerships will occur on a regular basis and will result in shared staff, funding, and data collection and maintenance efforts.
 
In short, GIS data and technologies will transform how decisions are made, how information is disseminated, and how governments interact with each other and with their citizenry.
 
Table of Contents
 

 
Benchmarks for GIS Success
 
The GIS Plan for Oregon will be successful if the following goals are met:
  • GIS is integrated into business processes for all governmental organizations within the State. GIS transactions will be as common as word processing on PCs today, and GIS is recognized as a valuable tool to meet the needs of citizens of Oregon.
  • Geographic data are gathered and managed cooperatively through public and private partnerships and are readily available to the public.
  • All governmental data has spatial references and statewide data standards are developed for base information.
  • A centralized statewide GIS data administration organization will catalog and manage the state´s vast quantity of GIS data. Access to these data will be readily available and affordable to all.
  • GIS activities in Oregon are closely coordinated with similar efforts in the region and the National Spatial Data Infrastructure.
  • Use of GIS is an integral part of curriculum for K-12 and higher education throughout the state.
 
Table of Contents
 

 
History of GIS in Oregon Governments
 
Government has always been besieged by an ever-increasing paper load. In the area of mapping, the paper load is especially difficult to deal with. Large or odd sizes, and the very time-consuming processes required to make even minor changes made map making one of the true arts. More importantly, it has always been difficult to compare or combine information between maps. Beginning in 1969, the Department of Forestry captured map information on keypunch cards and processed it on a mainframe computer, producing a data tape that was used to drive a plotter. Although the system was difficult to update and maintain, it was the first effort at moving Oregon maps to a digital medium.
 
In the late 1970s, Oregon counties began to embrace digital cartography for tax lot and parcel mapping, either with their own systems, or by contracting with the State Department of Revenue. This began the development of one of the more critical GIS data layers needed today, and made major advances in dealing with the paper map crisis.
 
Beginning in the early 1980s, state and local agencies made major investments in computerized systems to support their digital mapping tasks. At the same time, a few local and state agencies began testing and using a new type of computer mapping system directly linked with a data base manager. This type of system could hold huge amounts of data associated with a map, and addressed the issue of comparing and analyzing information between maps.
 
As the technology has matured in Oregon, it has moved from the hands of highly trained specialists dealing with mainframe technology down to user-friendly tools on the desktop. The people using GIS now are less technical, and can concentrate on the use of GIS as a tool, not as a technology. This has resulted in GIS being integrated within programs that need to analyze and provide geographic information. For them, GIS has become an integral part of the decision making and public service process. For example, it is becoming commonplace to find GIS being used at the public desk at local planning agencies as a normal tool for conducting business. The State Water Resources Department relies on GIS to provide water-related information at their customer service desk. And, agencies are beginning to make resource allocation decisions based on analysis of the combination of geography, statistics, and census data.
 
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History of SMAC and OGIC
 
The Oregon State Map Advisory Council (SMAC) was originally established by Executive Order in 1912 with a goal of completing the mapping of Oregon. From the 1960s through the 1980s, the goal was to work with the US Geological Survey to complete the 1:24,000 scale quadrangle map series. In 1983, the SMAC was re-established by Executive Order No. EO-83-16 to coordinate mapping, land records management and geographic information activities. Appointed members were primarily from the natural resources agencies. In September of 1994, the Council was reorganized under Executive Order EO-94-16 and was renamed the Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC). OGIC had a broader scope, including public safety and human resource agencies. The Council´s members are appointed by the Governor, and specifically include: Department of Environmental Quality, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Forestry, Department of Human Resources, Department of Corrections, Employment Department, Department of Revenue, Department of Transportation, Department of Agriculture, Parks and Recreation Department, Water Resources Department and the Division of State Lands.
 
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History of the State Service Center for GIS
 
In 1983 Oregon Department of Energy staff used federal Coastal Energy Impact Program funds to test if Oregon could use a Geographic Information System to plan for impacts from coastal energy development. At the urging of the State Map Advisory Council chair, funds were used to purchase what was then a high-end desktop machine running the public domain Map Overlay and Statistical System(MOSS). This pilot project cost $52,000 including the system, data, and people. This established Oregon´s first GIS shop.
 
Early projects dealt with coastal energy issues such as wetland protection and estuary planning. These first projects set a precedent of charging for services to help defray the cost of the program. In 1985 the Department of Energy purchased a new minicomputer. As the desktop machine was now insufficient, the GIS staff selected Environmental Systems Research Institute´s Arc/INFO to run on the minicomputer. The Department moved to a PC network in 1989 and the minicomputer was dedicated primarily to GIS In 1990 the GIS group moved to a UNIX workstation network.
 
In 1989, the GIS Section within the Department of Energy was designated by Executive Order as the State Service Center for Geographic Information Systems (SSCGIS). This designation was continued by the Executive Order in November 1994 that created the Oregon Geographic Information Council.
 
Staffing level at the SSCGIS has increased from one person in 1983 to nine permanent positions for the 1995-97 biennium. Staff turnover was low until 1994 when over 100% of the staff left during a one year period. Recruitment and retention of employees has been a major issue during the 93-95 biennium.
 
The budget allocation for the SSCGIS has increased from $52,000 in 1983 to over $1,175,000 for the 95-97 biennium. During the 1993-95 biennium, several natural resource agencies contributed over $300,000 to cover the costs of implementing and maintaining the Oregon Digital Map Library. This contribution covered the costs of the Manager, Data Administrator, and half of the Systems Administrator. Additional computer support for the library was also funded through the contributions. The remainder of the program continued to be funded on a fee for service basis, with the exception of $40,000 allocated from General Funds to the Territorial Sea program.
 
In 1994, the SSCGIS began its move from the Department of Energy to the Department of Administrative Services (DAS). The move was to facilitate the expansion of the SSCGIS mission to include all state agencies and to expand network access by direct linkage to the State Wide Area Network optical fiber. In November of 1994, the SSCGIS moved its physical location to DAS in the Revenue Building, keeping administrative responsibilities with ODOE. The 1995-97 LeGISlature approved the move, making the administrative transition effective July 1, 1995.
 
Project highlights over the years include the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area data base and map products, Northern Spotted Owl Recovery Plan GIS analysis, 1990 leGISlative redistricting effort, Territorial Sea GIS database, DEQ oil spill response plan maps, Rural Lands parcel database development, Oregon´s Watershed Health Program GIS support, Baseline97 coordination, rural development grant application analysis, GIS needs assessments for Clackamas and Jackson Counties, River Reach database quality control, and Main Street Cascadia map for the Institute for Sustainable Communities.
 
The SSCGIS facilitates monthly meetings of GIS project leaders within State government; is a US Geological Survey Earth Science Information Center; is a State Data Center for the US Census Bureau; is active with the Interorganizational Resource Information Coordinating Council; is a member of the National Geographic Information Council and the Oregon GIS Association; and participates in the Oregon Geographic Information Council as a member and with staff support.
 
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History of GIS in State Agencies
 
In the 1980s the Department of Forestry´s Graphics Section began using automated cartography. They were using Intergraph´s Microstation software to create digital maps for various programs in the Department. The State Lands, Graphics, Resources Planning and Fire Protection sections obtained GIS capability in 1994 with the purchase of UNIX workstations and ARC/INFO GIS software or through the use of "x terminal emulation" software. Several Copies of ArcView2 are also in use.
 
The Department of Transportation (ODOT) has used digital cartography since 1984 and GIS since 1987 in support of various departmental activities including bridge and pavement management. Currently, ODOT is in the process of creating an internal strategic geographic information systems plan in order to better align GIS within the organization . ODOT sees a decentralization of GIS activities in order to better serve all levels of the department, and anticipates that GIS will be fully integrated into the planning and decision making process with a desk-top GIS solution available to users throughout the organization.
 
In the 1980s, the Oregon Coastal Program administered by the Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD) began to address the potential for onshore impacts from offshore development of ocean resources. The Program captured data on estuarine habitats mapped by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife in the 1970s, which at that time provided important data for Oregon´s program for managing the use of estuarine resources. While the offshore information system resulted in the collection of several data sets, their use as a robust analytical system is limited by both the complexity of the ocean and its resources. The estuarine habitats and estuary zoning data sets have both been imported, along with several other data sets, into a desktop information system for coastal resources developed with the help of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The Coastal Program also contracted to capture general land use maps for western Oregon, and a statewide coverage is being contemplated. DLCD currently uses ArcView2 to view coverages it has acquired from the SSCGIS and other sources. The current Coastal Program data development strategy is to build a data browsing utility and a library of coastal data sets for distribution to interested libraries and local governments.
 
In the 1980s the Water Resources Department (WRD) began automating water rights and water right mapping. A reduction in response time to the public and the ability to analyze water availability, groundwater management, and planning options has been the result. Water Resources is continuing to digitize water rights and provide front counter access to those water rights that are digitized. This service provides both terminal display and plotted maps of the water rights to the public. WRD is also moving more of its map publication to the digital environment using GIS data and postscript output. Water availability has become a primary criteria in the review of new water right applications. GIS maps are available to water rights staff and the public showing current water availability by county, basin and hydrologic unit. WRD is also providing counties with water supply-related mapped information from a number of agencies including DEQ, Parks, DLCD and WRD. These maps are helping counties see data in a way that may be helpful in planning future water supply options.
 
The Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has created a water quality GIS data base statewide. DEQ is planning to use GIS for hazardous materials response and inventorying underground storage tanks.
 
Oregon Emergency Management (OEM) became involved with GIS in 1990 through the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program as a tool to plan for and respond to disasters at the Umatilla Army Depot. Over the years GIS applications have expanded to an all-hazards approach to emergency management. OEM is in the process of putting a GIS platform in each Public Safety Answering Point (9-1-1 center or PSAP) throughout the state. It will be used as a tool to assist in locating 9-1-1 callers.
 
As early as the 1970s the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) was using GIS and Remote Sensing technology in their Wildlife Research Program. Projects included the Silver Lake Mule Deer Ecology and Eastern Oregon Cover studies which assessed habitat requirements of mule deer and elk. Currently ODFW is using GIS to map wildlife, marine and aquatic habitats for use internally as well as by other agencies and the public.
 
The Division of State Lands (DSL) started using GIS in 1990 to automate their Resource Inventory information. Since then, DSL has expanded their GIS efforts to develop spatial data sets for all DSL owned surface lands with supporting attribute databases of ownership and leasing information. In addition to this data, DSL has completed many special projects such as waterway management, coastal leasing, historic vegetation, waterway removal/fill activity, and wetlands. DSL is now developing GIS data sets for state agency mineral ownership, land classification, asset management, and land acquisitions. DSL is planning on developing an enterprise-wide information system that integrates spatial data with current and future databases, and delivers this information to user´s desktops, government agencies and the public.
 
The Department of Revenue (DOR) was ordered by the leGISlature in the 1950s to oversee the property tax system of Oregon counties. Part of this responsibility was setting standards for creating and maintaining assessors´ maps. A standard was written and the Cartographic Unit began contracting with counties to redraw their maps to the new standard. In the late 1970s the Department began using computer-aided mapping. The resulting mylars have been maintained by hand. In 1987 an Intergraph system was purchased and Multnomah County became the first county to receive digital files from the Department. The equipment has continued to be upgraded and the Department is now working with other users in the state to develop a standard for GIS that will meet the needs of the assessor and other map users.
 
The Parks and Recreation Department (OPRD) mapping efforts have helped manage 4,000 acres of Willamette River Greenway parcels and assess the facilities and heritage of 91,393 acres of Oregon parks. The facilities assessment includes information on structures and infrastructures, while the heritage assessment includes information on recreation use and opportunities, T&E species, vegetation and natural resource projects. The map data does not have a geographic reference yet, however, the agency is planning on bringing geocoding to the statewide coverage of OPRD parcels. Currently they are developing a statewide trails plan that will have approximately six map layers with existing and planned trail locations and associated attributes.
 
In 1994, the Department of Human Resources (DHR) used GIS and 1990 Census data to determine areas in Oregon which met very stringent poverty requirements required to apply for a federal Enterprise Community (EC) grant. Two small areas in rural Josephine County and an area in urban Portland met the requirements and had not previously been identified based on manual aggregate poverty statistics. DHR applied for the grants, and Josephine County was awarded a rural grant (one of 30 nationwide, selected from 139 applications) and the Portland area was awarded an urban grant.
 
In 1992, Department of Agriculture (ODOA) began contracting with the SSCGIS to build a database of rangeland grasshopper infestation and control areas in Oregon based upon information gathered in the field every year since 1953. ODOA plans to use GIS analysis to model grasshopper population trends, and also continues to use GIS to monitor trapping and/or eradication programs for a variety of exotic pests, including European and Asian Gypsy Moth. In addition, Agriculture staff from the Plant Conservation Biology Program have been working with the SSCGIS for GIS to improve the accessibility of existing endangered species databases. This type of information has been made available to local watershed groups and will improve the state-wide management of sensitive species. Evaluation of endangered species location data with habitat maps may help predict the location undiscovered populations on public lands.
 
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History of Federal Relations
 
Implementation of GIS technology has steadily increased over the last twenty years in federal agencies managing natural resources. Early uncoordinated efforts have given way to interagency approaches driven by the need to move from individual National Forest or Resource Area Plans to an interagency ecosystem landscape-wide approach.
 
In the 1970s federal agencies used the Map Overlay and Statistical Systems (MOSS) for a variety of purposes such as for development of Forest Service National Forest Land Management Plans, Bureau of Land Management Resource Management Plans, and US Fish and Wildlife Service Wetland Analytical Mapping. Planners, information managers, and GIS specialists recognized the need early on for standard data sets and technology but lacked the funding and a forum for coordinating efforts.
 
In the Pacific Northwest federal agencies started coordinating GIS efforts through the formation of the North West Land Information System Network (NW LISN) in the mid-1980s. This group provided an opportunity for agencies to come together to share information and develop common goals. The President´s Forest Conference in April 1993 resulted in creation of the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) which became a driving force for interagency coordination. Through the development of a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth related species within the range of the Northern Spotted Owl, agencies discovered the difficulty of combining data sets. Since that time natural resource management agencies have supported efforts for standards and data sharing through the formation of the Interorganizational Resource Information Coordinating Council (IRICC) in February 1994 and subsequent projects sponsored by the council. At the same time the Bureau of Land Management, Forest Service and other agencies have made significant investments to upgrade their technology and skills base.
 
On the national level the Office of Management and Budget issued a revised Circular A-16, "Coordination of Surveying, Mapping, and Related Spatial Data Activities" in 1990. It established the Federal Geographic Data Committee to promote the coordinated development, use, sharing, and dissemination of geographic data. In April 1994, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12906, "Coordinating Geographic Data Acquisition and Access: The National Spatial Data Infrastructure." The order assigns the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) the responsibility of coordinating the federal government´s development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NDSI). It also instructs the Committee to seek to involve state, local, and tribal governments in the development and implementation of the initiatives contained in the order.
 
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History of County Relations
 
GIS implementation in local government has also been growing and evolving since the early 70s. Organizations such as Lane council of Governments (LCOG) and the Salem/Marion Geographic Land And Data System (GLADS) program have used GIS technology for years. Several others such as Metro, Washington County, Multnomah County, and others started using GIS in the mid-1980s. GIS in local governments has focused on either automated mapping or on geographic analysis. Automated mapping sites are typically found in public works, surveying or assessment departments, while geographic analysis applications have been developed in planning departments. Implementation at the local level has often occurred in isolated environments with single departments or agencies bearing all the cost and making all the decisions. The result was that there were few standards between GIS systems at the local level. Many of the local governments were interested in a more efficient and standardized approach to GIS, especially as GIS became a required tool to complete tasks required by the State. The SMAC appeared to be an opportunity to improve GIS coordination and to determine the best methods to improve GIS systems. The Lands Records Subcommittee of SMAC, which included representatives of the many diverse GIS participant, from local governments to Federal agencies to title companies and private consultants, did provide a forum for the sharing of GIS problems, needs and developments and the identification of ways to improve GIS The Subcommittee emphasized the need to include local land record transaction data in GIS systems, produced guidelines for the development and maintenance of local GIS systems and recommendations for implementation of a unique parcel identifier. Now, local governments are providing leadership in the development of GIS guidelines and a more communicative environment through the creation of the Oregon GIS Association (OGISA) and an Oregon Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) chapter.
 
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Oregon Geographic Information Coordination Efforts
 
On the 23rd of September, 1994 Oregon Governor Barbara Roberts signed Executive Order EO - 94 -16 broadening the State Map Advisory Council into the Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC). OGIC is charged with providing a leadership role in geographic information in Oregon, providing a state-level forum for all geographic information issues, providing a policy, planning, and assessment role on geographic information issues, and promoting coordination and partnerships. OGIC consists of representatives of twelve agencies along with the Manager of the SSCGIS. The twelve agencies represent a cross section of state agencies where the State Map Advisory Council was composed of Natural Resource Agency representation.
 
There are many efforts underway to increase coordination and cooperation among all Oregon GIS users.
 
Federal and local government participation is encouraged at OGIC meetings. The OGIC Chair is working with the Governor´s staff to expand official representation to include federal and local officials.
 
Technical specialist within state agencies have been meeting monthly for over a year as the GIS Project Leaders (GPL). The goal is to share ideas, experiences, and propose solutions to common problems in a technical forum. These meetings take place at different agency locations and feature demonstrations from the host agency. This group has provided staff work to OGIC, especially in the development of the GIS Plan.
 
The State of Oregon is one of the participating organizations in the efforts of the Interorganizational Resource Information Coordinating Council (IRICC). Current IRICC initiatives include basic data standards for Vegetation and Hydrography/Fish themes; completion of 1:24,000 scale base data for Oregon, Washington, and Northern California; Wide Area Network connections of participating organizations; and the development of data coordination teams of resource specialists by theme.
 
Baseline97 is a cooperative project between state, federal, local, tribal, and private organizations to build, maintain, and distribute basic geographic data for Oregon. Over $400,000 has been pledged to complete coverage for the state at the 1:24,000 scale for 5 base data layers (DEM, Hydrography, Public Land Survey, Boundaries, and Transportation). The SSCGIS will compile all existing data, fill the gaps through contracts with USGS, and transfer the data to a common format. The data will then be available as a complete data set.
 
The Oregon GIS Association is affiliated with the Association of Oregon Counties and bring GIS Coordinators from local governments together to share information and work on common issues. Current projects include helping the Oregon Department of Revenue revise cartographic standards to include GIS compatibility; development of standards for parcel information; and development of a standard for map and digital product disclaimers.
 
The Oregon Road Base Information Team (ORBIT) is involved in an effort to complete a common road base for Oregon. Federal, state, local, private, and university representatives are investigating the possibilities of integrating road information across jurisdictions. Currently three pilot projects are underway to test different aspects of the project.
 
The SSCGIS moved from the Department of Energy to the Information Resource Management Division within the Department of Administrative Services. The move was initiated to provide direct access to the Oregon State Wide Area Network, and to move the emphasis of the center to serving all agencies within the state. The SSCGIS has been working extensively with human resource agencies to initiate them to the benefits of working with GIS technology.
 
The SSCGIS is a recipient of a cooperative agreement with the USGS for developing a clearinghouse for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. This agreement will help the continued development of the Oregon Digital Map Library and Internet access.
 
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OGIC GIS Goals and Strategies
 
Data
 
Data acquisition and update account for a major portion of the cost of developing an integrated Geographic Information System. Data collection and maintenance is sometimes completed in isolation, causing needless duplication of effort. Efforts to completely document data have been limited. Governmental organizations are realizing the need for coordination, communication, and partnerships to produce quality digital data across administrative boundaries. Other issues to address include data standardization, security, and identification of priorities for future data development.
 
Goals:
 
1) Data is current and complete.
2) Data is secure.
3) Users can find and navigate to all data they need.
4) Users can determine "usefulness" of each data set (metadata).
5) Data collection and maintenance is coordinated. Data stewardship (the people best in position to maintain accuracy) and agency accountability is assigned.
6) Standards and methodologies exist (and are used) for commonly collected and maintained data.
7) Statewide base map is 1" - 100´ urban; 1"-400´ rural; 1" - 1,000´ Natural resources area.
 
Strategies:
 
1) Develop central access and index point for data, metadata, methodologies and standards.
  • Lead: SSCGIS
    Timeline: June, 1996
2) Standardize spatial components for all data collected (zip code, address, GPS points, etc.).
  • Lead: OGIC Lead; ORBIT, Revenue, OACES, BLM
    Timeline: June, 1997
3) Define the Oregon base map, including attributes.
  • Lead: OGIC; GPL
    Timeline: June, 1996
4) Maintain data (via data stewards) in normal flow of doing business.
  • Lead: OGIC, All agencies, SSCGIS, private efforts
    Timeline: June, 1997
5) Monitor and influence leGISlation.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: January 1997
6) Prioritize data collection efforts.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: June, 1996
7) Define a uniform ownership parcel identifier.
  • Lead: Department of Revenue; OGISA, County Assessors, County cartographers
    Timeline: June, 1996
8) Adopt FGDC standard for metadata.
  • Lead: OGIC; Revenue, ODOT
    Timeline: June, 1996
 
Other Strategies
  • Define methodologies.
  • Develop ongoing process for identifying user needs.
 
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Technology
 
Technology allows people to view data as information. Technology is the basis for GIS tools. Computer hardware, software, and the infrastructure to connect equipment together and provide access to the outside world are all elements of the tools and technology used. Issues include the ability to exchange information; connect to all interested parities; centralize sources of data; integrate other tools such as GPS, statistical packages, and relational databases; cost effective alternatives; and cooperative ventures to reduce costs.
 
Goals:
1) Provide network access to data for the GIS community and public.
2) Adopt compatible data exchange formats.
3) Provide real time update capability to one common data source.
4) Create master contracts for hardware /software /training.
5) Pursue greater global positioning system (GPS) integration with GIS projects.
6) Centralized data and metadata repository.
 
Other goals
Centralized systems support for automated manufacturing/facilities management (am/fm) and GIS/GPS
 
Strategies:
1) Migrate the SSCGIS towards data and technology coordination efforts.
  • Lead: OGIC, SSCGIS
    Timeline: June, 1997
2) Coordinate and develop a statewide GPS control network.
  • Lead: OACES; NGS, BLM, ODOT
    Timeline: June, 1997
3) All GIS organizations will connect to the Internet in cooperation with federal and local governments.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: June, 1997
4) Publish GIS data and resource index on the World Wide Web (Internet).
  • Lead: SSCGIS
    Timeline: June 1996
5) Create master contracts with major vendors. This will reduce operational costs and software uniformity, leading to easier data exchanges.
  • Lead: DAS/IRMD; SSCGIS
    Timeline: June 1996
 
Other Strategies
Support FGDC Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)
Develop a system that allows updates to be made to a central database.
Create a central body for better GPS integration with GIS
Identify public/private partnerships and determine best practices for data
Exchange/development, technology sharing, new technology.
Encourage public/private partnerships for applications development.
Locate central AM/FM/GIS/GPS support group with in DAS or SSCGIS.
Coordinate collection of imagery data.
 
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People and Organizations
 
People and the organizational structure of the working environment are critical to the successful implementation of Geographic Information Systems. People are the major resource needed to accomplish the work required by organizations. People need to be motivated, trained, and have career paths available to them. Finding and retaining qualified GIS experts is a problem for governmental organizations. The skills required are complex and difficult to find. The competition from the private sector is fierce.
Creating a climate within and between organizations for the growth of GIS technology is also important. The support of policy makers is critical because of the time and expense needed to integrate GIS technology into the culture of the organization. GIS enables new ways of doing business. It also creates a commitment to change information flows, establishes accountability and data stewardship, and increases ownership of the process.
 
Goals:
1) Develop stable sources of funding and people (resources) to accomplish intra-organizational projects.
2) Develop strategies for retaining and recruiting a GIS work force.
3) Look for and define a model organizational structure for GIS in Oregon where top policy makers are involved and are committed allies, where there is a comprehensive funding strategy, and where close ties are established with legislative bodies.
4) Develop a multilevel education program.
5) Provide an effective marketing of the Oregon GIS strategy.
 
Other Goals
Distribution: Provide a means for documenting and distributing data, services, and expertise.
Desktop: Plan for explosion of desktop spatial data users.
 
Strategies:
1) Develop a learning lab at the SSCGIS.
  • Lead: OGIC; SSCGIS, DAS Training Center
    Timeline: January, 1997
2) Develop GIS position series and career path.
  • Lead: OGIC; DAS Personnel
    Timeline: January, 1997
3) Provide incentives for participation in shared or standardized projects.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: June, 1997
4) Develop a GIS curriculum for all levels of schools, including adult learning.
  • Lead: Oregon GIS Alliance; Department of Higher Education
    Timeline: January, 2000
5) Support a joint federal, state, tribal, and local committee to provide coordination and leadership for GIS in Oregon.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: June 1997
 
Other Strategies
  • Give the SSCGIS authority to implement strategies.
  • Clarify roles and responsibilities of existing organizations.
  • Develop a marketing plan to promote use and support of GIS in Oregon.
  • Develop a GIS job classification system.
  • Secure money and resources dedicated to support GIS committees, activities and maintenance.
  • Develop a biennial leGISlative plan of action.
  • Identify clearinghouse requirements and move forward with development.
  • Update GIS plan biennially (Executive Order requirement).
  • Develop action plans for meeting the needs of desktop users.
  • Define model organizations for GIS
  • Develop executive and technology training program.
  • Develop a funding strategy for large intra-organization projects.
  • Gain recognition that spatial information is used by every department, and therefore
  • Departments should invest in good GIS data sets.
  • Annual GIS conference in conjunction with URISA.
 
Table of Contents
 

 
GIS Plan Maintenance
 
The GIS plan allows for clear and written documentation of the goals and strategies and begins to hold leading parties responsible for supporting the vision of the Oregon Geographic Information Council. The success of this plan and the council reaching its vision depends on all government agencies doing their part. Efforts to pursue initiatives require work plans and status reports. The three-ring binder will allow for updates, revisions, status reports, workgroups´ work plans and products to be added regularly.
 
Goal:
1) OGIC´s GIS Plan will be kept dynamic, informative, and progressive.
 
Strategies:
1) Discuss and approve any needed revisions and supplements
  • Lead: OGIC members
    Timeline: monthly meetings
2) Develop work plans for addressing strategies.
  • Lead: assigned workgroups
    Timeline: December 1, 1996
3) Develop agency GIS plans.
  • Lead: respective state agencies
    Timeline: as developed
4) Distribute supplements and revisions to OGIC members in
  • Lead: SSCGIS, OGIC staff support
    Timeline: Quarterly - December 15, March 15, June 15, September 15
5) Update Gantt charts displaying status on strategies.
  • Lead: SSCGIS, OGIC staff support
    Timeline: quarterly - December 15, March 15, June 15, September 15
6) The GIS plan benchmarks will be measured and the plan will be revised for 97-99 biennium.
  • Lead: OGIC
    Timeline: January 1997
 
Table of Contents
 

 
Participation
 
GIS plans don´t just happen. GIS plans take months of hard work from dedicated individuals. There is a requirement, much like the GIS field itself, of an ability to bring disparate people and information together to focus on a single issue. This GIS Plan is the result of twenty-two people from four levels of government working towards a common goal. The following groups represent the Oregon Geographic Information Council, the Oregon GIS Project Leaders, and the individuals that directly worked on developing this plan.
 
Oregon Geographic Information Council Appointed Members
 
Mike Zanon, Chair
Department of Administrative Services
 
John McGinn
Department of Agriculture
 
Lisa Strader
Department of Corrections
 
Tom Lynch
Employment Department
 
Ed Wallace
Department of Environmental Quality
 
Rudy Rosen
Department of Fish and Wildlife
 
Dave Stere
Department of Forestry
 
Gary Potter
Department of Human Resources
 
Nancy Rockwell
Parks and Recreation Department
 
Jim Manary
Department of Revenue
 
John Lilly
Division of State Lands
 
David White
Department of Transportation
 
Barry Norris
Water Resources Department
 
Donald Hull
Dept of Geology and Mineral Industries
 
Theresa Valentine
SSCGIS
 
Debbie Balsley
SSCGIS
 
Active OGIC Participants
 
Bob Swank
Lane Council of Governments
 
Dean Anderson
Polk County Courthouse
 
Gary Bohren
US Geological Survey
 
Tom Sturm
US Geological Survey
 
Tim Quinn
Regional Ecosystem Office
 
Dave Macmillan
Unigroup
 
Doug Terra
Dept of Environmental Quality
 
Milt Hill
Department of Fish and Wildlife
 
Steve Whitney
Division of State Lands
 
Brian Schmidt
Oregon Parks & Recreation Dept
 
Chris Levy
Department of Transportation
 
Tim Quinn
Regional Ecosystem Office
 
Bob Devyldere
Oregon Water Resources Department
 
GIS Project Leader Participants
 
Theresa Valentine
SSCGIS
 
Michael Ciscell
Water Resources Dept.
 
Milton Hill
Oregon Dept. of Fish & Wildlife
 
Scott Jackson
Dept. of Revenue
 
Donna Gerten
Dept. of Agriculture
 
Ray Jaindl
Dept. of Agriculture
 
Alan Maul
Dept. of Forestry
 
Mike DeLaune
Dept. of Forestry
 
Ken Graham
Dept. of Forestry
 
Emmor Nile
Dept. of Forestry
 
Randy Dana-Frigault
Dept. of Land Conservation & Development
 
Paul Klarin
Dept. of Land Conservation & Development
 
Lloyd Chapman
Dept. of Land Conservation & Development
 
Chris Levy
Oregon Dept. of Transportation
 
Greg Sachau
Oregon Dept. of Transportation
 
Dave MacMillan
Dept. Of Corrections - Unigroup
 
Paul Staub
Dept. of Geology & Mineral Industry
 
Brian Schmidt
Oregon Parks & Recreation Dept.
 
Mark Stenberg
Oregon Parks & Recreation Dept.
 
Jeff Weber
Dept. of Land Conservation & Development
 
Doug Terra
Dept. of Environmental Quality
 
Amy Clark
Dept. of Environmental Quality
 
Steve Whitney
Division of State Lands
 
Greg Willnow
Division of State Lands
 
Mike Zanon
Dept. of Administrative Services
 
Alan Coyle
Oregon Emergency Management
 
Tony Busam
Oregon Emergency Management
 
Clinton Goff
Dept. of Human Resources
 
Deirdre Molander
Oregon Progress Board
 
Cara Filsinger
Oregon Progress Board
 
Dean Anderson
Polk County
 
Jim Meacham
Univ. of Oregon
 
Debbie Balsley
SSCGIS
 
Richard Crucchiola
SSCGIS
 
Joe Mailander
SSCGIS
 
Mat Gilson
SSCGIS
 
Fred Weigman
SSCGIS
 
Lee Row
SSCGIS
 
Eunice Overhulser
SSCGIS
 
GIS Plan Goal Setting & Strategy Development Participants
 
Mike Zanon
Dept. of Administrative Services
 
Tom Lynch
Employment Dept.
 
Dave Stere
Dept. of Forestry
 
Rick Jones
Dept. of Forestry
 
Dave Yandell
Oregon Emergency Management
 
Alan Coyle
Oregon Emergency Management
 
John Prychun
Dept. of Revenue
 
Steve Whitney
Division of State Lands
 
Barry Norris
Water Resources Dept.
 
Jerry Sauter
Water Resources Dept.
 
Bob Swank
Lane Council of Governments
 
Dave Macmillan
Unigroup
 
Dean Anderson
Polk County Courthouse
 
Chris Levy
Oregon Dept. of Transportation
 
Tim Quinn
Regional Ecosystem Office
 
Donna Gerten
Dept. of Agriculture
 
Milton Hill
Oregon Dept. of Fish & Wildlife
 
Chuck Lang
Dept. of Administrative Services
 
Scott Smith
Dept. of Administrative Services
 
Richard Crucchiola
SSCGIS
 
Theresa Valentine
SSCGIS
 
Debbie Balsley
SSCGIS
 
Table of Contents
 
Oregon Geographic Information System Plan Appendices

Appendix A
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. EO - 94 - 16
OREGON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION COUNCIL
Geographic information about the character and location of the state´s human, economic, natural and infrastructure resources, and the activities that affect and are affected by those resources, is essential to all levels of government in Oregon. Mapping, land records, and geographic information systems (GIS) are the primary tools for analyzing this information. For these reasons, the State Map Advisory Council was established by Executive Order No. EO - 83 - 15, and given additional responsibilities in Executive Order No. EO - 87 - 11. Executive Order No. EO - 89 - 16 charged the State Map Advisory Council with developing a statewide GIS plan, establishing standards and procedures for digital map data, and providing direction to the State Service Center for Geographic Information Systems created by the Order.
As human and natural resource policies become more complex, it is important that agencies have access to complete, current, and accurate geographic information. This requires further revision of State Map Advisory Council responsibilities.
Leadership is needed to ensure that Oregon has a consistent vision for geographic information activities within the state. A forum must be provided to encourage participation and to facilitate sharing of information about all aspects of geographic information, including GIS, mapping, global positioning systems, satellite imagery, and desktop tools. There must be a mechanism to prioritize initiatives and to provide guidelines. Finally, a central point for coordination and partnerships is needed to assure best use of limited resources.
IT ORDERED AND DIRECTED:
1. The State Map Advisory Council role is broadened and continued as the Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC). The OGIC shall:
a. Provide a leadership role in geographic information in Oregon, including: i. Advocacy with the Oregon Legislature, U. S. Congress, county commissions, city councils, and the private sector. ii. Searching for "best practices" in geographic information, and seeing if such practices are applicable to Oregon.
iii. Creating and promoting a statewide mission for geographic information in the State of Oregon.
iv. Working with the Legislature, Information Resource Management (IRM) Council, and the Federal Geographic Data Exchange group in establishing statewide direction.
b. Provide a state-level forum for all geographic information issues, including: i. Encouraging involvement of all potentially affected parties with respect to geographic information issues. ii. Function as a primary point of contact on discussions about geographic information issues that affect government agencies in Oregon.
iii. Facilitate the free flow of information between interested parties.
c. Provide a policy, planning, and assessment role on geographic information issues, including: i. Ongoing review of statewide geographic information practices and oversight of GIS Service Center policy, in coordination with the Enterprise Information Strategy and Policy Division of the Department of Administrative Services (DAS). ii. Promoting development in areas of statewide benefits.
iii. Prioritizing geographic information initiatives.
iv. Developing geographic information guidelines and standards to be adopted by the IRM Council.
d. Promote coordination and partnerships, including: i. Joint ventures. ii. Leveraging of resources.
iii. Fostering relationships and brokering cooperative arrangements.
2. The OGIC shall consist of representatives of twelve agencies along with the Manager of the GIS Service Center. Those agencies are Department of Agriculture, Department of Corrections, Employment Department, Department of Environmental Quality, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Forestry Department, Parks and Recreation Department, Department of Human Resources, Department of Revenue, Department of Transportation, Water Resources Department and the Division of State Lands. OGIC should encourage other interested agencies to participate.
a. An OGIC chair will be appointed by the Governor. The chair shall serve for a term of two years, and may be reappointed for one additional two - year term. b. The OGIC may establish standing committees and ad hoc work groups as needed to achieve its purposes and ensure the ongoing involvement of local and federal agencies.
c. The OGIC shall meet at least quarterly at the call of its chair. A majority of the twelve appointed members of OGIC, or the majority of a particular subcommittee, shall constitute a quorum.
d. Staff assistance to OGIC will be provided by the GIS Service Center.
e. Members of the OGIC shall receive no compensation for their services.
3. The State Service Center for Geographic Information Systems (GIS Service Center) is continued. The purpose of the GIS Service Center is to coordinate state GIS projects, and to provide a data library, data administration, and data access function for Oregon geographic information.
The GIS Service Center shall:
a. Develop and document a statewide digital map and information set, and provide access to this data to state, county, local, and federal governments, as well as to the public and the private sector. b. Provide technical support, GIS training, consulting, project support and programming services to other government agencies.
c. Coordinate data maintenance, distribution, licensing where applicable, and data gathering with Oregon government agencies and the private sector.
d. Provide for project support on a cost recovery basis.
e. Provide staff support to the chair, Oregon Geographic Information Council.
4. State agencies shall coordinate their land resources management, GIS, mapping, and other geographic information activities with the OGIC, the GIS Service Center, and other local and federal agencies. As appropriate, state agencies shall:
a. Create and maintain geographic data themes, and provide updates of that data to the Digital Map Library at the GIS Service Center on a schedule to be determined by the agency data administrator and the GIS Data Librarian at the GIS Service Center. b. Share information through the OGIC about projects involving geographic information and related systems and technology.
c. Coordinate with the OGIC and the GIS Service Center before making decisions about planning and development of projects involving the acquisition of geographic data, hardware, or software.
d. Participate in the review and updating of an Oregon Geographic Information Council Plan, (State Map Advisory Council Geographic Information System Plan) and adhere to the policies and standards established in the plan.
5. The Information Resource Management Division, Department of Administrative Services, shall work with the OGIC to develop policies and guidelines to ensure that agencies´ acquisition of geographic information and related hardware and software are cost-effective, compatible with statewide needs, further IRM objectives, meet open architecture standards, and do not duplicate the efforts of other agencies or the GIS Service Center.
6. Executive Order No. EO - 89 - 16 is hereby rescinded.
Done at Salem, Oregon this 23rd day of September, 1994.
Barbara Roberts (sig)
GOVERNOR ATTEST:
Phil Kiesling (sig)
SECRETARY OF STATE
Table of Contents 
Appendix B and C
Appendix B and C as MS WORD Document
 

Appendix D
OGIC GIS Plan: Maintenance Procedures, Schedule and Distribution
Maintenance procedures:
Revisions to the plan will be discussed, reviewed and approved at monthly OGIC meetings. A schedule of meetings can be obtained by staff at the State Service Center for GIS.
Supplements to the plan will be generated by OGIC appointed workgroups as they work to address initiatives and strategies (e.g. strategy work plans and reports). Supplements can also be generated by state agency GIS coordinators (e.g. agency GIS plans). Supplements will be reviewed and approved by OGIC members at monthly meetings. A schedule of meetings can be obtained by staff at the State Service Center for GIS.
Approved revisions and supplements will be edited for format only and placed on the website by OGIC staff provided by the State Service Center for GIS.
Hard-copy revisions and supplements will be compiled by OGIC staff provided by the State Service Center for GIS and distributed quarterly to appointed OGIC members and federal and local representatives.
OGIC appointed members or respective staff will maintain its own hard-copy GIS plan.
The GIS Plan with its revisions and supplements will be maintained regularly on the website with OGIC staff support provided by the State Service Center for GIS.
Plan Revisions will include:
  • Changes or additions to goals, strategies, time lines and responsibilities.
  • Changes to the Progress Gantt Chart (Appendix ).
Plan Supplements will include:
  • OGIC Workgroups´ work plans and reports
  • New executive order
  • Agency GIS Plans
Maintenance Schedule:
Revisions to goals and strategies discussed and approved at monthly OGIC meetings:
lead: OGIC members or representatives
meetings dates: March 12, 1996; April 9, 1996; May 14, 1996; June 11, 1996; July 9, 1996;
August - No scheduled meeting; September 10, 1996
Supplement: Strategy work plans lead: assigned workgroups
Timeline: December 1, 1996 Supplement: Agency GIS plans. lead: respective state agencies
timeline: as developed Supplement: Gantt Chart of progress lead: SSCGIS, OGIC staff support
timeline: quarterly - December 15, March 15, June 15, September 15 Distribution of supplements and revisions to OGIC members: lead: SSCGIS, OGIC staff support
timeline: December 15, March 15, June 15, September 15 Distribution revisions and supplements to the website: lead: OGIC staff support
timeline: December 15, March 15, June 15, September 15 GIS plan benchmarks will be measured and the plan revised for 97-99 biennium. lead: OGIC
timeline: January 1997 Table of Contents 

Appendix E
GIS Policies and Standards
POLICY Department of Administrative Services Number: 03-15
Date: February, 1995
ISSUER: Enterprise Information Strategy and Policy Division
SUBJECT: Geographic Information Systems
Abstract
Encourages interagency cooperation in data acquisition and GIS systems development. Outlines agency requirements for the planning, acquisition, and use of geographic information systems.
Authority
ORS 291.038
Executive Order 94 -16
Policy
Rapid changes to our state and its population and economy elevate the need for careful resource management. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are particularly useful for tracking and understanding resource policy issues. As such, the Department of Administrative Services (DAS) encourages the cost-effective use of GIS technologies and methodologies by and among agencies.
Agencies contemplating GIS related development or data acquisition should consult with the DAS Information Resources Management (IRM) Division and the State Service Center for GIS for guidance on data acquisition, technology selection, and project staging. GIS planning shall follow the statewide information technology planning procedure and standards issued by the DAS/IRM Division, and supplemental procedures, if any, issued by the Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC).
For acquisitions of GIS-related products and services that are less than $50,000, DAS/IRM has delegated review and approval to the State Service Center for GIS (Information Resource Request Forms should be submitted to the Service Center). For GIS projects which exceed $50,000, the IRM Division will consult with the Service Center and/or OGIC to ensure the proposed projects aligns with established directions, priorities, and project evaluation criteria contained in the OGIC GIS Plan. Budget priority will be given to agency GIS initiatives that involve construction of a statewide digital map base and that conform to and enhance statewide GIS data administration and data dictionary activities.
Procedure Reference
For additional information or questions, please contact the Department of Administrative Services, Enterprise Information Strategy and Policy Division, or the State Service Center for GIS at 378-4036.
Document History: 02-22, February, 1994
STANDARDS
(to be appended)
Table of Contents 
Appendix F
What is a Geographic Information System (GIS)?
One answer is that GIS is a combination of computerized mapping and database information. Another is "An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information" (from "Understanding GIS - The ARC/INFO Method, ESRI 1991). Most people´s understanding of GIS will fall somewhere in between these two extremes. The key concept that distinguishes GIS from other information systems is that GIS maintains a SPATIAL component. Another way to say this is that GIS uses locational relationships. A conventional database may tell us much about an event, including when and where it occurs, but it will fall short if we ask it about the event´s spatial relationship to something else.
An example: A database of city information might include such things as population, date of incorporation, county and state location, etc. We could ask this database the following questions:
What cities have populations greater than 100,000?
What cities are located in Lake County?
What cities have been incorporated since 1940 and have populations less than 40,000?
But if we need to know answers to the following questions, we need to use GIS technology.
What cities are located within 30 miles of Bend, Oregon?
What cities with populations greater than 100,000 occur within the 3 smallest counties of the state?
What cities, incorporated since 1940, are not within 5 miles of a major river?
GIS information is often seen as map products and it is sometimes assumed that GIS always produces computerized maps. This is not always true. Sometimes the results from spatial questions do not require maps to be useful. An example might be a parcel delivery company using GIS to calculate the most efficient routes for a given truck with a given load. The output from the GIS might be an ordered address list for the driver to follow.
Table of Contents 
Appendix G
Acronyms and Glossary of Terms
Base data layer: Base data layers are a set of information that provide a background orientation for another layer of primary focus. Examples would be roads, streams, and other data typically found on US Geological Survey maps. CD-ROM: Compact disks similar to what the recording industry uses. Store 650 megabytes on each disk. Cannot be written to, only read from. Much less costly than hard disks for bulk data storage and distribution.
Compatibility: The ability to transfer and use data among many systems.
Custodian: Agency charged with creating, coordinating, or maintaining a data layer.
Data Administrator: The Data Administrator carries out the directives of an agency GIS plan, assists programs with internal data administration, performs coordination functions in cooperation with the Service Center, and is the main technical advisor to the agency.
Data administration: Organizing, standardizing, and documenting data to increase the ability to easily share it among different users.
Data element dictionary: A description of what information is contained in a data layer, what the format is, and other documentation.
Distributed network: Although linked together, computers function autonomously. This yields more speed and flexibility than a shared, single computer.
Digitizing: Transferring data from a map or photograph into a computer.
Elevation/bathymetric modelling: A three-dimensional model of the earth above and below sea level, stored within a computer.
Geographic information: Information that contains a spatial (location) element. Most state data contains a location element. Thus, geographic information is a good way to tie different data types together.
Geographic Information system: A system of hardware, software, data, people and organizations that collect, store, analyze and disseminate information about areas of the earth.
GIS Service Center: A service group operating within the Department of Administrative Services, Enterprise Information Strategy and Policy Division. Since 1984, this group has been providing a variety of GIS services to state, local and federal agencies.
GPL: GIS Project Leader
Image processing: Collecting and working with data in the form of pictures. Often used with satellite data and aerial photography.
Information System Plan: An agency data automation plan required by the Department of Administrative Services of all agencies. This plan covers agency initiatives for the next biennium.
Integrated system: A system that allows many varied pieces to function together.
Layer: A conceptual grouping of data that share common characteristics. A layer may be composed of base or thematic data, e.g., roads (base) or elk habitat (thematic).
Management system: A way of organizing data so that it is easy to use. Data is presented as information, not discrete pieces of data.
Map scale: The relative size of a map sheet to the Earth. Scales are often given as a relative fraction, such as 1:24,000, meaning 1 inch on the map = 24,000 inches, or 2,000 feet on the ground. Large scale maps are used for small areas, e.g., 1:4,800 (1 in. = 400 feet). Small scale maps are used for large areas, e.g., 1:1,000,000.
OGIC: Oregon Geographic Information Council - An executive-level coordination group created by executive order (See Appendix A).
Remote sensing: Collecting data (images) using satellites or aerial photography.
Spatial Data: Data that can be referenced to a particular location on the earth, and is used to describe a particular location, area, or feature.
Standards: Requirements which are intended to make hardware, software and data compatible. Standards cover data capture, accuracy, sources, base categories, output, and data element dictionaries.
Telecommunications: Linking to a remote computer using a high speed data line.
Thematic layer: Thematic layers are typically the data of interest, such as elk habitat, water quality, or timber stands. They are used in conjunction with base layers to produce a final map.
Topology: The explicit connectivity of spatial features. Topology is required in GIS data for proper spatial relationships among features and their attributes.
Transfer format: A way of organizing data to allow easy sharing among different systems.
Workstation: A very fast and powerful stand-alone, single user computer. Workstations are often linked into a network to share data.
Table of Contents 
Appendix H (to be appended)
Appendix I (to be appended)