This page provides information about key topics related to the TGM program's objectives. We welcome suggestions for additional topics of interest. If you would like to suggest a topic, please contact Constance Beaumont at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Active, Healthy Transportation
In reponse to numerous health problems associated with sedentary life styles, public health experts are promoting the concept of "active transportation" - travel modes involving physical exercise, such as walking and bicycling (or transit, as people usually combine transit with walking).
- Activity-Friendly Communities Can Make Our Lives Better: 2014 TGM Presentation by Dr. James Sallis, Director of Active Living Research at the University of California, San Diego.
- Active Design Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design: Published by the City of New York, the guidelines discuss ways to build opportunities for daily physical activity into the built environment. (Note: After clicking this link, one is asked to answer a few questions - e.g., zip code, profession, etc. - but when those are answered and the "submit" link is clicked, the guidelines may be downloaded.)
- Active Transportation for America: The Case for Increased Federal Investment in Walking and Bicycling (PDF): A report by Bikes Belong and the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.
- Connecting Communities: Creating Livable Communities for Everyone: Presentation by active transportation expert Gil Penalosa, executive director of 8-80 Cities. This presentation was given at a TGM-sponsored event in Eugene in 2014.
- Designing Healthy Communities: Presentation by Dr. Richard Jackson, Chair of Environmental Health Sciences at UCLA, about the link between our health and the way our communities are designed. Talks about how well designed communities and better transportation choices can enable physical activity and improve both our physical and mental health.
(Image courtesy www.pedbikeimages.org / Adam Darin )
Climate Change and Land Use
Transportation pollution, mostly from cars and trucks, account for 38 percent of Oregon's carbon dioxide (CO2) pollution, according to the Oregon Governor's Advisory Group on Global Warming (PDF). CO2 is a greenhouse gas. By making it easier for people to take trips by foot, on bicycle, or on public transit, state and local governments can help communities cut global warming pollution.
The Oregon Sustainable Transportation Initiative (OSTI) is an integrated statewide effort to reduce GHG emissions from transportation while creating healthier, more livable communities and greater economic opportunity. The effort is the result of several bills passed by the Oregon Legislature, and it is designed to help the state meet its 2050 goal of reducing global warming pollution by 75 percent below 1990 levels. The OSTI website has information about ongoing efforts and includes a toolkit and case studies communities can use. Additional resources:
Well-connected, well-designed streets serve people in of all ages and abilities -- they are "complete" rather than serving just some people. They also help people walk more, enhancing the vitality of cities and towns.
- Local Residential Streets (Skinny Streets) (PDF): Presentation on skinny street design by Matthew Crall of TGM.
- Neighborhood Street Design Guidelines (PDF): TGM report discussing strategies for reducing street widths.
- Street Design Basics (PDF): Flyer from TGM about street width, grid design, and traffic calming techniques.
- Main Street: When a Highway Runs Through It (PDF): A TGM handbook for Oregon communities that addresses road design, special transportation areas, pedestrian-friendly streets, couplets, bypasses, and other transportation topics that often challenge main street revitalization efforts.
- Rethinking Streets: An Evidence-Based Guide to 25 Complete Street Transformations (PDF): A report from the University of Oregon's Sustainable Cities Initiative which provides detailed information on 25 successful complete streets projects across the United States. The report shows how communities implemented street improvements and the results of the changes they achieved.
- Urban Street Design Guide: A guide to designing city streets from the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO). This guide is focused on the design of city streets and public spaces, and emphasizes street design in a city environment as a unique practice with distinct goals relative to street design in other contexts. The guide includes references to a number of local street design manuals and urges municipalities to create local street design standards.
- Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context-Sensitive Approach: A guide to how transportation standards can better support community objectives in urban areas. This guide outlines the planning and development process using context-sensitive solutions (CSS), and addresses the thoroughfare design process as well as specific design criteria. This manual is the result of a partnership between the Insitute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the Congress for the New Urbanism.
- A Citizen’s Guide to Better Streets: How to Engage Your Transportation Agency: Guide to the role of local transportation agencies in street design and effective ways of interacting with transportation agencies, by the Project for Public Spaces.
- National Complete Streets Coalition: Website with information on complete streets policies, fundamentals, and implementation, maintained by Smart Growth America.
- Context Sensitive Solutions: Website with information on the design on context-sensitive walkable and livable streets. Includes case studies, PowerPoint presentations, and other resources. Maintained by the Institute of Transportation of Engineers in partnership with the Federal Highway Administration, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Congress for the New Urbanism.
- Creating Livable Streets: Street Design Guidelines for 2040: Publication from the Metro livable streets program.
- Model Design Manual for Living Streets: Publication from Los Angeles County focused on streets that accommodate all travel modes.
A balanced transportation system provides for good connections between local destinations. Ideally, connections include pedestrian and bicycle paths as well as streets. Conversely, the cumulative effect of not connecting local streets between development parcels is traffic congestion on surrounding collectors and arterials.
Density and Design
Density and Housing Design
High-density development, especially when coupled with mixed land uses, is critical to the success of public transportation and walkable neighborhoods. Not only does higher density provide the ridership needed to make public transportation financially viable, but it also offers a market for small local businesses located within walking distance of residential neighborhoods. When well-designed and respectful of the character of surrounding neighborhoods, high-density development is more likely to win community acceptance. When poorly designed, however, high-density development often generates strong opposition. The resources noted below discuss how communities in Oregon and around the country have addressed the design and other issues that can arise when high-density development is proposed:
Design Guidelines for Downtowns and Transportation Corridors
Many communities have found that well-designed development in downtowns - or in transportation corridors leading into city centers - can help to encourage revitalization and new investment.
Design Review Guidelines and Code Provisions
Vibrant main streets are an important part of a community, as they offer a place for commercial activity and social interaction. Because of the prominent role that main streets play in a community, the TGM Education and Outreach program offers workshops that focus on main street and downtown revitalization. The links and resources below also offer information on main street revitalization:
- Stanfield Main Street Revitalization (PDF): Presentation by MIG, Inc. summarizing a 2014 TGM workshop. Click here for the full report.
- Weston Main Street Revitalization (PDF): Presentation by Alison Wildman, SERA, Inc., and Bob Wise, Cogan Owens Cogan, at a 2011 TGM workshop.
- Toward a Thriving Downtown (PDF): Presentation by Tim Smith, Director of Urban Design at SERA Architects, at a TGM workshop in Monmouth in 2007.
- Wood Village Workshop (PDF): Presentation by Alison Wildman of SERA, Inc., and Bob Wise of Cogan Owens Cogan at a 2011 TGM outreach workshop. Addresses town centers and main streets.
- Main Street: When a Highway Runs Through It (PDF): A TGM handbook for Oregon communities addressing road design, special transportation areas, pedestrian-friendly streets, couplets, bypasses, and other transportation topics that often challenge main street revitalization efforts.
Mobility standards define acceptable speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services. Historically, mobility standards focused on roads and highways, but more and more jurisdictions are updating their mobility standards to encourage walking, bicycling, and transit use, and the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual includes Level of Service and Quality of Service measures for walking, biking, and transit. Traditional mobility standards have often discouraged healthy community design. Resources:
Multi-Modal Mixed-Use Areas
Oregon's Multimodal Mixed-Use Area (MMA) designation may be applied by local governments to downtowns, town centers, main streets, or other areas inside Urban Growth Boundaries where the local government determines that there is:
- High-quality connectivity to and within the area by modes of transportation other than the automobile;
- A denser level of development than in surrounding areas, with a variety of commercial and residential uses;
- A desire to encourage these characteristics through development standards; and
- An understanding that increased automobile congestion within and around the MMA is accepted as a potential trade-off.
In areas designated as an MMA, a local jurisdiction does not need to apply local or state congestion performance standards when evaluating proposed plan amendments against the TPR in OAR 660-012-0060. The act of designating an MMA is also not subject to significant effect evaluation requirements under the rule. See the MMA Information and Guide for Local Governments (PDF) for more information.
Oregon's Plans and Policies
Transportation Planning Rule
The Oregon Land Conservation and Development Commission adopted the Transportation Planning Rule (TPR) in 1991 with support from the Oregon Department of Transportation. The TPR seeks to ensure Oregon ’s transportation system supports a pattern of travel and land use in urban areas that avoids the air pollution, traffic and livability problems faced by other areas of the country. The rule aims to improve the livability of urban areas by promoting changes in land use patterns and transportation systems that make it more convenient for people to walk, bicycle, and use transit, and drive less to meet their daily needs. These changes support other state objectives, including reducing the cost of public services; protecting farm and forest land; reducing air, water, and noise pollution; conserving energy; and reducing global warming pollution.
Among other things, the TPR:
- Requires the Oregon Department of Transportation to prepare a state transportation system plan (TSP) and identify a system of transportation facilities and services adequate to meet identified state transportation needs;
- Directs counties and metropolitan organizations to prepare regional transportation system plans consistent with the state TSP;
- Requires counties and cities to prepare local transportation system plans consistent with the regional plans.
More information on the TPR
Oregon Transportation Plan
The Oregon Transportation Plan (OTP) is the state's long-range multimodal transportation plan. The OTP considers all modes of Oregon's transportation system as a single system and addresses the future needs of airports, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, highways and roadways, public transportation and railroads through 2030.
The Oregon Department of Transportation's 2006 Transportation Plan Survey (PDF) found 78% of Oregonians believe public transit is needed in their community.
Oregon Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan
The Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan was adopted by the Oregon Transportation Commission in 1995. It is currently being updated, and is paired with an updated Bicycle and Pedestrian Design Guide.
Oregon Highway Plan
The Oregon Transportation Planning Rule requires regional and local transportation system plans to be consistent with the Oregon Highway Plan. Besides setting forth policies on such matters as highway mobility standards, freight traffic, and traffic safety, the Highway Plan addresses the relationships between land use and transportation in its Land Use and Transportation Policy. This policy encourages compact development patterns that can yield the following benefits:
- Reduction of local trips and travel on state highways;
- Shorter vehicle trips;
- More opportunities to walk, bicycle, or use available transit services;
- Increased opportunities to develop transit; and
- Reduction of the number of vehicle trips to shop and do business.
Policy 1B of the Oregon Highway Plan addresses the relationship between land use and transportation, and states in part:
"It is the policy of the State of Oregon to coordinate land use and transportation decisions to efficiently use public infrastructure investments to:
- Maintain the mobility and safety of the highway system;
- Foster compact development patterns in communities;
- Encourage the availability and use of transportation alternatives;
- Enhance livability and economic competitiveness; and support acknowledged regional, city and county transportation system plans that are consistent with this Highway Plan."
In support of Policy 1B, Action 1B.1 of the Highway Plan encourages:
- Transit, bicycle, and pedestrian facilities, including street amenities that support these modes;
- Design and orientation of buildings and amenities that accommodate pedestrian and bicycle use as well as automobile use;
- Provision of public and shared parking;
- Infill and redevelopment;
- Expansion of intensive urban development guided away from state highways rather than along state highways; and
- Other supporting public investments that encourage compact development and development within centers.
Action 1B.7 of the Highway Plan describes highway segment designations that influence decisions made by the Oregon Department of Transportation. Key designations are:
- Special Transportation Areas (STAs): The primary objective in STAs is to provide access to community activities, businesses, and residences and to accommodate pedestrian movement along and across the highway in a downtown, business district, or community center. (See Action 1B.9-1B.11 of the Highway Plan.)
- Commercial Centers: The primary objective in Commercial Centers is to maintain through traffic mobility.
- Urban Business Areas: The primary objective in UBAs is to maintain existing speeds while balancing the access needs of abutting properties with the need to move through traffic.
- Urban: The primary objective is to efficiently move through traffic while also meeting the access needs of nearby properties.
Oregon Public Transportation Plan
Oregon Public Transportation Plan
The following reports are not sponsored by TGM, but address transportation issues of interest to the TGM program.
- In a Rockefeller Foundation funded report, Driven Apart: How Sprawl Is Lengthening Our Commutes and Why Misleading Mobility Measures Are Making Things Worse, Economist Joe Cortright examines the Texas Transportation Institute's Urban Mobility Report and how mobility measures lead to construction of more roads and highways. Cortright observes the UMR ignores the impact of sprawl and travel distances on traffic congestion and calls for a greater focus on accessibility - the proximity and convenience of destinations.
- On June 2, 2011, the Livable Communities Task Force released Freedom from Oil, a report describing policy options for reducing the United States' reliance on expensive foreign oil. The report argues improving such transportation options as transit, walking, and bicycling would help to reduce community vulnerability to oil price shocks.
Good parking management is a critical, but often overlooked strategy for attaining numerous goals. Among them: revitalizing downtowns and main streets, reducing congestion, cutting greenhouse gas emissions, and promoting active transportation.
Schools: Safe Routes to School and School Siting
Schools are often the focal point of a neighborhood, and new schools can stimulate a significant amount of traffic and residential development. Likewise, growing communities create the need for expanded or additional schools. For these reasons, school siting requires the involvement of many stakeholders, and can be challenging.
- Integrating Safe Walking and Bicycling to School into Comprehensive Planning: An informational brief produced by the National Center for Safe Routes to School and the Safe Routes to School National Partnership.
- Planning for Schools and Livable Communities: The Oregon School Siting Handbook, produced by TGM.
- Impacts of Safe Routes to School Programs on Walking and Biking. A 2015 summary of the research from Active Living Research shows Safe Routes to School programs boost walking and biking rates by an average of 43% over the long term.
- Oregon Safe Routes to School Program: The Oregon Safe Routes to School Program helps communities identify and remove barriers and hazards to children, K-12, walking or biking within two miles of a school. Funds are expected to become available in late 2006 to help communities carry out public awareness activities as well as infrastructure improvements that improve the safety of children as they walk or bike to school.
- Safe Routes to School: Presentation by Alison Wildman, SERA, Inc., and Bob Wise, Cogan Owens Cogan, at a TGM workshop for the Weston-Athena School District in Oregon in February 2011.
- School Buildings and Community Building: Presentation by Matthew Dalbey, Ph.D., U.S. EPA Smart Growth Program, at the 2010 Nashville Area School Siting Symposium.
- National Center for Safe Routes to School
- Managing Maryland's Growth: Smart Growth, Community Planning & Public School Construction: Guidebook on school facility planning and siting from Maryland's Department of Planning.
- School Siting in North Central Texas. Very detailed document with updated technical information and a checklist.
Smart codes encourage a mix of land uses, preservation of open space and environmentally sensitive areas, varied housing and transportation options, and predictable development review processes. Many local zoning codes unintentionally discourage the creation or preservation of traditional neighborhoods and Main Streets, which give people meaningful transportation choices. To help small communities in Oregon promote development that enables people to get around more easily, the TGM program created the Model Code and User’s Guide for Small Cities.
Form-based codes are one type of smart code which can improve the mobility as well as the appearance of communities. Form based codes emphasize building types, dimensions, parking locations and facade features over land uses. This type of code also favors mixed-use development, which brings local destinations into closer proximity to each other. Traditional zoning codes, on the other hand, emphasize land uses over a building's physical form. By rigidly separating land uses, zoning codes have often increased the auto dependency of communities while reducing their pedestrian friendliness. The TGM Model Code for Small Cities is a hybrid code, with some features of a form-based code.
Smart growth enables cities to give local residents more housing and transportation choices near jobs, services, and schools. Smart growth supports local economies and helps protect the environment.
- Moving Forward Together: A smart-growth conference held in Eugene, Oregon in 2008, sponsored by TGM with the National and Oregon Associations of Realtors. Includes links to presentations by John Fregonese, Bob McNamara, Joe Cortright, Reid Ewing, former Maryland Governor Parris Glendening, and others.
- New Partners for Smart Growth Conference: Conference presentations from the 2013 conference held in Kansas City. Presentations from the 2011 conference can be found here.
- Smart Growth America is a nonprofit promoting smarter growth patterns.
Statistics and Data
The links below provide data and statistics about transportation in America:
Public transit increases transportation choices for people, lessens roadway congestion, reduces air pollution, and gets people where they need to go.
Transit Agencies and Resources
The following links connect to organizations and resources that provide information on ways to improve transit service and facilities.
Transit Oriented Development
Through Transit Oriented Development (TOD), communities encourage higher-density residential and commercial development near bus lines, streetcar routes, and train stations. This proximity increases the likelihood that transit services will be better used by the public. Increased usage, in turn, makes the construction and operation of transit easier for governments to finance.
Transportation Demand Management
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) refers to a variety of strategies to improve transportation system efficiency. TDM emphasizes the movement of people and goods, and prioritizes efficient modes of transport such as walking, cycling, ridesharing, and transit. In some cases TDM measures can offer an alternative to costly road and highway expansions. The following resources provide more information about TDM:
- Transportation Demand Management Plans for Development: Guide outlining one mechanism to incorporate programmatic TDM strategies in the land use review process: requiring applicants to prepare a TDM plan that details how the applicant (and subsequent owners and/or tenants) will accomplish measures to reduce transportation impacts from the development over time. This guide contains background information about TDM, a step-by-step approach for local governments interested in implementing a TDM plan program, and model code language compatible with the Model Development Code for Small Cities.
- Online TDM Encyclopedia: A comprehensive source of information about innovative management solutions to transportation problems. This online encyclopedia contains detailed information on demand management strategies, plus general information on TDM planning and evaluation techniques. It is produced and maintained by the Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
- National TDM and Telework Clearinghouse: Website with TDM information maintained by the University of South Florida.
- Washington Department of Transportation TDM Program: Website with information about transportation options in Washington.
Walking and Bicycling
Making it easier and more pleasant for people to walk places provides many benefits. It helps to reduce traffic congestion. It enables people to integrate simple physical exercise - walking - into their daily routine. And it avoids the worsening of environmental problems, such as air pollution, water pollution, and the global warming pollution.
(Image courtesy www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden)
People Riding Bikes
Most Americans own a bicycle; and for many of us, getting our first bicycle was a major step towards independence. Yet bicycles aren't just toys -- people riding bikes represent between five and 10 percent of trips taken in such cities as Eugene, Corvallis, Palo Alto, and Boulder. In Davis, California, residents make more than 20 percent of trips by bicycle.
Examples of Oregon Plans
The following are examples of bicycle and pedestrian plans adopted in Oregon.