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Feed mill biosecurity

Avian disease pontrol program

Avian disease control program for feed manufacturing and delivery
Feed mills and feed delivery trucks are a key link between commercial egg and poultry facilities and other handlers of avian species. Delivery of feed to ranches can distribute disease agents to commercial flocks. This plan is intended to help prevent spreading disease agents from the feed manufacturing facility, trucks and employees to the commercial egg and poultry ranches or other locations with avian species. Please note that this plan is based on current disease conditions. If conditions change, then this plan will be amended.

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Biosecurity checklist/ quiz

Isolation - 120 possible points
Complete perimeter fencing - 40 points
Gates that remain closed - 10 points
Buffer zone between your flocks and other birds - 20 points
Employee education about avoiding contact with other birds - 20 points
Employees and owners have dedicated clothing and shoes worn in clean areas of farm - 20 points
Have a plan in place for self-quarantine in case of disease - 10 points
Traffic flow - 160 possible points
Dead bird pickup and manure pickup are strictly isolated from other farm traffic - 15 points
Visitors are limited to essential people only - 30 points
Visitors sign a logbook - 5 points
Visitors that have been around birds in the past 24 hours are not allowed - 15 points
Visitors are required to wear protective clothing - 15 points
Signs are posted that prevent inadvertent visitors - 10 points
Biosecurity plan for farm that separates clean and dirty functions and establishes traffic flow - 15 points
Communication of biosecurity plan to all employees - 10 points
Segregation plan for new birds - 15 points
Pre-purchase testing policy - 25 points
Sanitation - 110 possible points
Vehicle disinfection stations at every entry and exit - 25 points
Hi pressure spray at vehicle disinfection stations - 10 points
Policy to keep all vehicles out of clean areas on the farm - 30 points
Equipment disinfection policy for visitors and on the farm - 10 points
At least 2 weeks downtime between flocks - 10 points
Complete cleaning and disinfection between flocks - 25 points
Score 390-351 You´re doing great! Disease prevention is the name of the game on your farm. But like every good grower, you are always looking to improve, so take this opportunity and take a critical look around and improve your already excellent biosecurity.
350-291 There´s room for improvement. Diseases may get in to your flocks and can be spread once they enter. Its time to make some improvements or devastating disease may be just around the corner.
290-0 Disease agents enter when they are in the area and are easily spread from your facility. You may want some help in learning about biosecurity and how to prevent disease. It´s not hard or expensive, it´s a state of mind.

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Feed deliveries

  1. When possible, trucks should be dedicated to specific ranches in order to eliminate contact with other ranches. 
  2. Upon entering a ranch for feed delivery, the truck should pass through a sanitizing station. At this point, the driver should also put on protective coveralls, boot covering and hair covering (preferably supplied by the ranch). Hands should also be sanitized with Lysol or another approved disinfectant prior to exiting the truck cab. 
  3. While on the ranch, the driver should minimize time outside of the feed truck and areas accessed. The driver should stay with the truck at all times except for accessing feed tanks during delivery. If possible, a ranch employee should climb the buildings or feed tanks to assist the driver. 
  4. When leaving the ranch, the truck should be pressure-washed to clean off mud and/or manure from the tires (including tread), wheel wells and undercarriage. Disinfectant should be applied immediately following a thorough pressure wash. This should be accomplished on the ranch if possible, or at a nearby commercial truck wash prior to accessing another ranch or returning to the mill (Appendix A). The driver should also remove the protective coveralls, boot coverings and hair covering discarding them at the ranch. If this is not possible, then these items should be placed in a sealed plastic bag that is sprayed with Lysol or another approved disinfectant and left in the truck cab. These items should be discarded as soon as possible where it will not pose a risk to poultry or other avian species. Lastly, the steering wheel/assembly, foot pedals and gear shifts should be sprayed with disinfectant prior to leaving the ranch. 
  5. In between deliveries to retail feed stores, trucks should be sanitized as stated above if the establishment has live birds. Unless live bird sales are a significant portion of a retail store´s business, they should be discouraged from having live birds on their premises. 
  6. Mills should not accept returned pallets or broken feed bags. Retail feed stores should be encouraged to discard them directly in a manner that will not pose a disease risk to poultry or other avian species. 
  7. Mills delivering to ranches with inadequate biosecurity measures should discontinue delivering to that ranch or recommend that they follow the procedures outlined in the attached guidelines for producers (Appendix B). 

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Mill visitor policy

Key risk areas include: property entrance points, vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas, doorways into facility buildings and visitor clothing, hands and hair.
  1. Each mill should have a clearly stated visitor policy. This notice should be posted at the entrance to the property and company buildings. 
  2. A logbook of visitors should be maintained. 
  3. Visitors in the feed processing and handling areas should be limited only to individuals essential to the operation of the mill. 
  4. Visitors to the mill facility should follow a predetermined route in order to control exposure to feed products. 
  5. Foot baths or dip mats should be placed wherever truck drivers will be entering or exiting their trucks and at each entry/exit point into company buildings. 
  6. Mills that have retail feed stores on site should keep retail customer traffic completely isolated from the mill facility, vehicles, mill production employees and truck drivers. Mills that do not have a retail feed store on premises should discontinue all other retail feed sales from the mill. 
  7. Mills that have retail feed store owners or other wholesale customers pick up loads at the facility should not allow the drivers to leave the cab of their vehicle, and the vehicle should be cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the mill property. If the drivers must get out of their vehicle, then their feet should be disinfected and access to the facility should be controlled to prevent the risk of spreading disease. Traffic flow patterns for these vehicles should be designed to prevent them from contaminating the feed mill. 
  8. Service personnel (vendors, electricians, machine repairmen, meter readers, etc.) and regulatory inspectors should be restricted in their access to production and transportation areas within the facility. Visitors that may go to other mills or locations where birds are present should have their feet and hands sanitized as well as wear protective coveralls, boot coverings and hair coverings supplied by the mill. A company contact person should communicate biosecurity concerns to each outside vendor of potential concern. 

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*Personal Hygiene
  1. Employees that come into direct contact with feed ingredients and finished feed products are to conform to good personal hygiene practices. 
  2. Feed truck drivers should wear a freshly clean set of clothing each day. 
  3. Drivers should walk through a foot bath or boot dip pad each time when they enter or exit their truck at company facilities. 
  1. Each employee assigned to areas of feed handling and transportation is to be trained initially and review at least annually the portions of this program that are specific to their job responsibilities. This shall include relief and back-up personnel. 
  2. Each employee should sign a statement agreeing not to come into contact with birds outside of their normal job duties.  
  1. Management personnel responsible for feed production and transportation are ultimately responsible for implementing and monitoring adherence to this disease control program. 
  2. Each supervisor/foreman is responsible for implementing the aspects of this program that apply to their area of supervision 

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Publications on biosecurity

Biosecurity for Poultry Flocks by Dr. Joan S. Jeffrey
Recommendations to prevent the spread and/or introduction of Avian Influenza by Dr. Carol Cardona

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Resources for biosecurity

Brad R. LeaMaster, State Veterinarian
Oregon Department of Agriculture
Salem, OR, 503-986-4680
Francine Bradley, poultry extension specialist
(530) 752-6316
Carol Cardona, poultry extension veterinarian
(530) 754-5041
Ralph Ernst, poultry extension specialist
(530) 752-3513
Doug Kuney, poultry farm advisor
(909) 787-2099
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Appendix A

Oregon commercial truck wash facilities

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Appendix B

Biosecurity procedures for avian ranches
  1. Isolation refers to the confinement of animals within a controlled environment. A fence keeps your birds in, and it also keeps other animals out.   
    1. Perimeter control. One of the best ways to do this is to install perimeter fencing. Perimeter fencing does not have to be expensive to work, but it does have to completely surround the birds and must include gates that are kept closed when not in use. If there are other birds on properties immediately adjacent to your flock, maintain a buffer zone between the two populations and prevent them from mixing. 
    2. Introduction of new birds to your flock. New birds can carry disease into your flock even if they are not showing clinical signs of disease. We recommend that all birds be tested for Newcastle disease, avian influenza and other disease agents important in that species before that bird is brought onto your property. A place to segregate new birds for at least 10 days from the established flock should be developed. Birds that develop any clinical signs of disease during this quarantine period should not be introduced. Traffic flow should always be from your flock to the new birds and never in reverse without a change of clothing and a shower. 
    3. Avoid contact with other birds. Anyone working with your birds or visiting your flock should not have had contact with other birds for at least 24 hours before they visit. Activities that should be avoided are hunting, visiting live bird markets or swap meets with birds, pet stores, and handling dead birds. 
    4. Prepare a plan for self-quarantine. If your birds get sick, stop all visits immediately, get birds into the laboratory or to your veterinarian for a diagnosis. During the time that you are waiting for a diagnosis, keep movement to a minimum. Human and equipment movement can easily spread disease. 
  2. Traffic control includes both the traffic onto your farm and the traffic patterns within the farm.  
    1. Visitor policy. Visitors should be strictly limited. Be selective about who you let onto your farm. Ask questions about where they have been and provide them with protective clothing. All visitors should sign a logbook so you can keep track of who has been on your farm. Put up signs to prevent people from wandering onto your facility. 
    2. Separate clean and dirty functions. Clean functions include bird handling, egg pickup, and feed handling. Dirty functions include manure pickup, and dead bird handling. One should not go from dirty functions to clean functions on the farm without a shower and a complete change of clothes. Usually, it´s just easier to plan your day so that you can avoid going from dirty to clean. Employees and owners should wear specific clothes to work in clean areas. These clothes and shoes should not leave the clean areas. 
    3. Isolation of dead bird pickup, manure hauling functions. Trucks that pick up dead birds and manure are usually doing the same thing at other farms. Because they are, they can easily spread disease agents. It is important to separate these activities completely from your birds. It is best if pickup can be in an area that is outside the perimeter of the farm or at least away from the flock. 
  3. Sanitation addresses the disinfection of materials, people and equipment entering the farm and the cleanliness of the personnel on the farm. 
    1. Vehicle disinfection. All vehicles entering a farm must be cleaned and disinfected. High pressure sprayers that can effectively remove organic material are critical to effectively remove and inactivate disease agents. Vehicle wheel wells and undercarriage must be fully cleaned and disinfected before entry to the farm and also upon exit. Usually, it is just easier to establish a place where vehicles can be parked outside of clean areas on the farm. 
    2. Equipment disinfection. Equipment coming onto or leaving the farm must be cleaned and disinfected. Equipment moving from dirty to clean functions must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. 
    3. Cleaning and disinfection between flocks. A minimum of 2 weeks downtime is suggested between flocks. Complete removal of bedding, feed, complete cleaning and disinfection of the housing area and inspection is critical to preventing diseases. 

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