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Nursery News
Nursery Newsletter logo  
March 2011
About this newsletter
Advance notification for shipping P. ramorum host nursery stock
Newsletter distribution change: Listserv sign up
Senior horticulturist retires
Oregon's noxious weed list
Invasive aquatic weeds
Butterfly bush cultivars: Approved or not approved?
Reminder: Imperata cylindrica listed as federal noxious weed
Spotted Wing Drosophila
Quarantine summaries
Lace bugged
A new insect find in Oregon
Phytophthora ramorum program 2010 update
Gypsy moth/Japanese beetle update
GAIP update
Useful web links and upcoming events
PCIT changes
Inspector territory changes and holiday/furlough schedule
About this newsletter
Primrose  
Primrose at nursery
The Nursery Newsletter is a semi-annual to annual publication of the Oregon Department of Agriculture and is intended as an aid to anyone involved in the growing and shipping of nursery plants. Through this bulletin, we hope to provide you with the most current shipping information as well as other topical information related to the nursery industry. If you have any suggestions for topics or articles for the next issue, contact Lisa Rehms via e-mail at lrehms@oda.state.or.us
 
Horticulturists:  Debbie Driesner, Dan Hawks, Lisa Rehms, Eric Reusche, John Ekberg, Karl Puls, Sherree Lewis, Scott Rose, Dennis Magnello, Gary Garth, Bev Clark, Susan Schouten
 
Gary McAninch, program supervisor; Jan Hedberg, lead horticulturist; Sue Nash, program assistant; Kim Lawson, office specialist; Melissa Lujan, GAIP auditor
 
Lisa Rehms and Bev Clark, editors

Advance notification for shipping P. ramorum host nursery stock
Viburnum sp.  
Viburnum sp.
A new federal order has been enacted by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA, APHIS). Effective immediately, the USDA, APHIS is requiring Phytophthora ramorum (P. ramorum) regulated areas to provide advance notification when shipping interstate to non-regulated area. This new regulation requires regulated counties in California, Oregon, and Washington to provide advanced notification to the destination state. Advance notification will allow states receiving P. ramorum-host nursery stock to assign and prioritize resources, assure rapid response, and provide direct traceability for high-risk nursery stock regulated by genera according to the USDA, APHIS.
 
You must provide advanced notification if you are:
  • Shipping Camellia, Kalmia, Pieris, Rhododendron (including Azalea), and Viburnum interstate
    to non-regulated areas.
  • Your nursery is located in Curry, Clackamas, Columbia, Lane, Marion, Multnomah, Washington or  Yamhill county.
 
The federal order applies only if you meet both the above criteria. Nurseries affected by federal order must send advance notification to the receiving state's agricultural office (USDA,APHIS state contact list in pdf format; http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pram/downloads/pdf_files/pram-prenotification-statecontacts.pdf) at the time of shipment. Please send by mail, facsimile, or email a document that includes the following; 
  • Shipping date, name, telephone number, and full address of the consignee
  • Name, telephone number, and address of the shipper
  • Plant name and number of each plant species/variety shipped
  • Mode of transportation (air, courier, ground)
The advance notification contact information for each state is listed within the 'State Summaries of Plant Protection Laws and Regulations' on the National Plant Board website (http://www.nationalplantboard.org/laws/index.html).
Advanced notification is not required for shipments of Camellia, Kalmia, Pieris, Rhododendron, and Viburnum to California, Oregon, and Washington. For additional information, please visit the following USDA, APHIS website; http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pram/regulations.shtm

Newsletter distribution change: Listserv sign up
nursery  
Nursery in Oregon
The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) is starting an email listserv to more rapidly communicate important information to nursery license holders and others interested in ODA's nursery program. This will be the last printed edition of Nursery News distributed via post. Future editions will be sent out on the listserv and posted to the ODA nursery and Christmas tree website. If you haven’t joined the e-mail listserv, and would like to, simply send an e-mail to:
NurseryList-subscribe@oda.state.or.us. You will receive an e-mail message confirming your subscription.

Senior horticulturist retires
John Ekberg  
John Ekberg
By Gary Garth, ODA Horticulturist
 
John Ekberg, senior “horticulturist,” aka nursery and Christmas tree inspector, retired on October 31, 2010 after 30 years of service with Oregon Department of Agriculture. Originally from southern California, John graduated from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona in 1972 with a Bachelor of Science degree in agricultural biology with an emphasis in economic entomology. He was employed as an agricultural biologist with the San Bernardino County Department of Agriculture for eight and a half years with many varied duties. John began working for the Oregon Department of Agriculture Nursery and Christmas Tree Inspection Program as a horticulturist in November 1980. His primary responsibilities were inspecting and certifying grower and retail nurseries in portions of Clackamas and Multnomah counties and also in other northern and eastern Oregon areas. Through the years, John developed a good working relationship with many of the industry's major growers. His expertise has nurtured a reputation of thoroughness and fairness with the businesses with whom he has consulted for these 30 years. In 2007, John was awarded the Carl E. Carlson Award for Regulatory Excellence by the National Plant Board. This prestigious annual award is presented to recognize one individual in the nation, for his or her service in plant regulatory protection within the nursery industry. John is an avid gardener and recently helped teach a weed ID class through Stop Oregon Litter and Vandalism (SOLV) in Multnomah County. John also has musical talent, playing his banjo and dobro in the local bluegrass band, The Why Nots. He will be greatly missed by ODA, his fellow horticulturists, and many members of the nursery and Christmas tree industries to which he provided outstanding service. We wish John and his wife Irene well in his retirement years in Corbett.

Oregon's noxious weed list
ivy  
English ivy
Most of us within the Nursery Industry are familiar with the noxious weeds quarantine. Below is a quick review of the quarantine including the list of Oregon's noxious weeds. The quarantine includes the entire state of Oregon and covers both "A" and "B" designated weeds. "A" designated weeds are of known economic importance and occur in the state in small enough infestations to make eradication or containment possible; or are not known to occur, but their presence in neighboring states makes future occurrence in Oregon seem imminent. "B" designated weeds are of economic importance and are regionally abundant, but may have limited distribution in some counties.

"A" and "B" listed plants covered by the noxious weed quarantine are:
  • Prohibited entry into the state of Oregon.
  • Prohibited from transport, purchase, sale, or offering for sale in the state of Oregon.
  • Prohibited from being propagated in the state of Oregon.
  • May be collected from the wild in areas that are already infested with the specific species that is collected, provided that the plants, plant parts, or seed are not used for propagation or sale within the state of Oregon.

Violation of quarantine
Plants will be returned immediately to point of origin by the Oregon receiver, if from out of state, or at the owner's option be destroyed under the supervision of the department, without expense to or indemnity paid by the department.

Exemption:
The director may issue a permit allowing entry into this state, propagation, or selling of plants covered by this rule, upon request, and upon investigation and finding that unusual circumstances exist justifying such action, and that the benefits of granting the permit outweigh the potential harm that may result from the requested action. The director may impose specific conditions on any permit issued hereunder, and the permit may be canceled for failure to meet the conditions therein. Any permit issued under this section shall be for a limited duration not to exceed one year. Agricultural seed as defined in Oregon's Seed Law, ORS 633.511 to 633.750, is exempt from this quarantine but subject to the noxious weed seed tolerances in OAR 603- 056-0205. Other commodities such as but not limited to wheat are exempt from this quarantine to the extent that they are contaminated with noxious weed seed.
 
The following comprises Oregon's noxious weeds quarantine list:
 
"A" designated weeds
African rue, Peganum harmala
Barbed Goatgrass, Aegilops triuncialis
Camelthorn, Alhagi pseudalhagi
Coltsfoot, Tussilago farfara
Common reed, Phragmites australis
Common cordgrass, Spartina anglica
Dense-flowered cordgrass, Spartina densiflora
European water chestnut, Trapa natans
Flowering rush, Butomus umbellatus
Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum
Goatsrue, Galega officinalis
Hydrilla, Hydrilla verticillata
Iberian starthistle, Centaurea iberica
Japanese dodder, Cuscuta japonica
King-devil hawkweed, Hieracium piloselloides
Kudzu, Pueraria lobata
Matgrass, Nardus stricta
Meadow hawkweed, Hieracium pratense
Mouse-ear hawkweed, Hieracium pilosella
Oblong spurge, Euphorbia oblongata
Orange hawkweed, Hieracium aurantiacum
Ovate Goatgrass, Aegilops ovata
Paterson's curse, Echium plantagineum
Plumeless thistle, Carduus acanthoides
Purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus
Purple starthistle, Centaurea calcitrapa
Saltmeadow corgrass, Spartina patens
Silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium
Skeletonleaf bursage, Ambrosia tomentosa
Smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora
Spanish heath, Erica lusitanica
Smooth distaff thistle, Carthamus baeticus
Squarrose knapweed, Centaurea virgata
Syrian bean-caper, Zygophyllum fabago
Taurian thistle, Onopordum tauricum
Texas blueweed, Helianthus ciliaris
White bryonia, Bryonia alba
Woolly distaff thistle, Carthamus lanatus
Yellow floating heart, Nymphoides peltata
Yellow hawkweed, Hieracium floribundum
Yellowtuft, Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum
 
"B" designated weeds
Armenian (Himalayan) blackberry, Rubus armeniacus (R. procerus, R. discolor)
Biddy-biddy, Acaena novae-zelandiae
Buffalobur, Solanum rostratum
Bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare
Butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii/varabilis
Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense
Common bugloss, Anchusa officinalis
Common crupina, Crupina vulgaris
Creeping yellow cress, Rorippa sylvestris
Cutleaf teasel, Dipsacus laciniatus
Diffuse knapweeds, Centaurea diffusa
Dodder, Cuscuta spp.* (*except northwest natives
Dyers woad, Isatis tinctoria
English ivy, Hedera helix/hibernica
Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum;
False brome, Brachypodium sylvaticum
Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis
French broom, Genista monspessulana
Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata
Giant horsetail, Equisetum telmateia
Giant knotweed, Fallopia sachalinensis (Polygonum)
Gorse, Ulex europaeus
Halogeton, Halogeton glomeratus
Hoary cress whitetop, Lepidium draba
Hairy whitetop, Lepidium pubescens
Herb Robert geranium, Geranium robertianum
Himalayan knotweed, Polygonum polystachyum
Houndstongue, Cynoglossum officinale
Italian thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus
Japanese knotweed (fleece flower), Fallopia japonica (Polygonum cuspidatum)
Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense
Jointed goatgrass, Aegilops cylindrical
Jubata grass, Cortaderia jubata
Kochia, Kochia scoparia
Leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula
Lens-podded whitetop, Lepidium chalepensis
Lesser celandine, Ranunculus ficaria
Meadow Knapweeds, Centaurea pratensis (jacea x nigra)
Mediterranean sage, Salvia aethiopis;
Medusahead rye, Taeniatherum caput-medusae
Milk thistle, Silybum marianum
Musk thistle, Carduus nutans
Myrtle spurge, Euphorbia myrsinites
Old man's beard, Clematis vitalba
Parrots Feather, Myrophyllum aquaticum
Perennial peavine, Lathyrus latifolius
Perennial pepperweed, Lepidium latifolium
Poison hemlock, Conium maculatum
Policeman's helmet, Impatiens glandulifera
Portuguese broom, Cytisus striatus
Puncturevine, Tribulus terrestris
Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria
Quackgrass, Agropyron repens
Ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Rush skeletonweed, Chondrilla juncea
Russian Knapweeds, Acroptilon repens
Saltcedar, Tamarix ramosissima
Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium
Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius
Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium
Shiny leaf geranium, Geranium lucidum
Slender-flowered thistle, Carduus tenuiflorus
Small broomrape, Orobanche minor
Spanish broom, Spartium junceum
Spotted Knapweeds, Centaurea maculosa (C. stoebe)
Spurge laurel, Daphne laureola
South American waterweed (Elodea), Egeria (Elodea) densa
Spikeweed, Hemizonia pungens
Spiny cocklebur, Xanthium spinosum
Spurge laurel, Daphne laureola
St. Johnswort, Hypericum perforatum
Sulfur cinquefoil, Potentilla recta
Swainsonpea, Sphaerophysa salsula
Tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea
Velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti
Yellow flag iris, Iris pseudacorus
Yellow nutsedge, Cyperus esculentus
Yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis

more...
Invasive aquatic weeds
water  
Columbia river
By Bev Clark and Lisa Rehms, ODA Horticulturists
 
Invasive species of all kinds have come on the radar screen across the country as we have become more mobile. The rise in popularity of outdoor water gardens and features in our yards has brought invasive aquatic plants onto this radar screen. As people build these ponds they want to stock them with plants that shelter goldfish, bloom, and create that “sense of place." Aquatic plants used for these purposes usually come from other countries. The foreign plants sometimes escape into adjacent waterways or are purposely dumped where they become established. This article will focus on three such foreign plants that will have significant ramifications if established here in Oregon.
 
The first species of concern is yellow floating heart, Nymphoides peltata. This pond plant was introduced into the United States as an ornamental water plant from the Mediterranean area in the late 19th century. Yellow floating heart is an aquatic perennial that grows rooted to the bottom in water depths of 2-13 feet. It has heart-shaped to circular leaves that grow 1-4 inches long. The leaves are attached to long stalks that arise from creeping underwater rhizomes. The flowers are bright yellow with five petals that are about 1 inch in diameter. The plant reproduces by seed as well as by rooting at the nodes and will regenerate from plant fragments. Yellow floating heart grows in dense patches, excluding light needed for native plant species and creating stagnant areas with low oxygen levels underneath the floating mats. These mats make it difficult to fish, water ski, swim or paddle. The plant grows on slow-moving rivers, lakes, reservoirs and ponds. The implications here in the Willamette Valley, if this weed becomes established, are huge.
 
 

Yellow floating heart, Images courtesy of Glenn Miller, ODA
 
In Oregon, the first escaped population was reported in 2004 in a pond adjacent to Fanno Creek in Washington County. A second site was discovered in 2005 in Lane County in a slow moving slough named Irving Slough near Springfield. Additional sites have been reported in southwest Oregon and in Little Squaw Lake on the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest. (click to view map showing infestation sites). Yellow floating heart is classified as an “A” rated weed in Oregon. An "A" designation means it is a weed of economic importance which occurs in the state in small enough infestations to make eradication or containment possible. The sites in Oregon infested with yellow floating heart are currently undergoing aggressive treatments. Aquatic weeds are especially difficult to eradicate, as herbicides labeled for aquatic weeds established in waterways are problematic. For more information visit the website: http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/profile_yfloatingheart.shtml

A second plant of concern that was once sold in nurseries as an aquatic garden plant is the water primrose, native to South America. Three species, Ludwigia grandiflora, L. hexapetala and L. peploides are on Oregon's watch list. L. hexapetala and L. grandiflora are established aggressive aquatic invaders of freshwater wetlands within the state of California. The two species are also present in the Willamette water system of Oregon. Water primrose is an aquatic perennial plant found in slow flowing rivers, at lake and reservoir margins, and in shallow waters of canals and flood plains. The plants form dense floating mats up to 3 feet tall, crowding and shading out native species. The stems root freely at the nodes. The plants reproduce by seed and vegetative fragments. Floating vegetative mats or shoot fragments readily break off and are carried away by flowing water to become established along new water systems. Water primrose has a bright yellow primrose shaped flower similar to yellow floating heart. The leaves of water primrose differ in that they are long and strap-shaped with pointed tips.
 
   
 Water primrose, Images courtesy of Glenn Miller, ODA

In California, this weed is a significant problem in irrigation canals and waterways and is threatening rice paddy production sites. If allowed to spread in Oregon, water primrose will be our significant problem as well.

The third water plant of concern is Hydrilla verticillata, known as water thyme or just plain Hydrilla. Native to Asia, this aquatic plant was introduced into Florida in the late 1950s for the pet industry's use in aquariums. It is now known to inhabit much of the southeastern United States, California, and Washington. It is not known to occur in Oregon. Hydrilla is classifed as an "A" rated weed here in Oregon, same as yellow floating heart.

Hydrilla is an aquatic perennial. Leaves of Hydrilla are 0.1-0.2 inches wide and 0.2-0.8 inches long with one or two bumps or protrusions along the underside midrib. Leaves grow in four to eight whorls around the stem. Reproduction occurs by re-growth of stem fragments. The weed grows rooted to the substrate of many types of water bodies. It can grow as much as an inch per day, forming thick mats that quickly fill up waterways. If allowed to flourish, has the same potential negative impact as the two species detailed above. For more information visit the website: http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/WEEDS/profile_hydrilla.shtml.
 


Hydrilla, Images courtesy of Vic Ramey, University of Florida

All three invasive plants of concern are having negative economic impact in inhabited states. These weeds are especially difficult and costly to eradicate. They compete with and sometimes destroy native organisms and reduce recreational opportunities. If you see any of these aquatic weeds, please contact the Oregon Invasive Species Council at 1.866.468.2337 or http://oregoninvasiveshotline.org. For additional information on aquatic and other invasive weeds, please visit the following sites:
 

Butterfly bush cultivars: Approved or not approved?
butterflfy bush  
Butterfly bush, Images courtesy of Tom Forney, ODA
By Susan Schouten, ODA Horticulturist
 
Butterfly bush, Buddleia or Buddleja spp., is a perennial shrub native to northwestern China and Japan. The plant grows up to 10 feet tall and produces flowers all summer long, usually with abundant seed. Butterfly bush is a species that thrives in open habitats such as dryland meadows, open slopes and dunes, road and rail rights-of-way, industrial yards and riparian areas. It also colonizes recent clear cuts, especially in the Pacific Northwest, causing a loss of forest productivity.

Oregon’s noxious weed quarantine was recently amended to allow only approved seedless butterfly bush cultivars to be propagated, transported, or sold in Oregon. Oregon Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with Oregon State University has developed the criteria and process to approve sterile varieties of butterfly bush. Only cultivars that produce less than 2% viable seeds will be placed on the ODA approved list.

There are three options for evaluating cultivars for approval:
  • OPTION 1: Sterility evaluation (grow-out) already completed. Under this option, the candidate butterfly bush cultivar is evaluated based on a review of the results of sterility studies already conducted.
  • OPTION 2: Sterility evaluation needed. Under this option sterility is determined via grow out evaluations conducted by Oregon State University. This evaluation process will take approximately 18 months and cost $10,000 per cultivar.
  • OPTION 3: Confirmation of interspecific hybrids (the mating of two separate species such as a cross between Buddleja davidii x Buddleja weyeriana). Interspecific hybrids of Buddleja are not regulated under Oregon’s Noxious Weed Quarantine. However, those transporting, propagating, or selling Buddleja interspecific hybrids need to provide ODA with proof of parentage, i.e. 1) data showing the hybrid has intermediate morphological features between the two parent species, or 2) results of molecular (DNA) tests that confirm the hybrid is an interspecific cross.
Approved sterile Buddleia varieties
  • Buddleja 'Asian Moon'
  • Buddleja 'Blue Chip'
  • Buddleja 'Ice Chip' (Formerly Buddleja 'White Icing')
  • Buddleja 'Purple Haze'
  • FLUTTERBY GRANDÉ™ Blueberry Cobbler Nectar Bush
  • FLUTTERBY GRANDÉ™ Peach Cobbler Nectar Bush
  • FLUTTERBY GRANDÉ™ Sweet Marmalade Nectar Bush
  • FLUTTERBY GRANDÉ™ Tangerine Dream Nectar Bush
  • FLUTTERBY GRANDÉ™ Vanilla Nectar Bush
  • FLUTTERBY PETITE™ Snow White Nectar Bush  
  • FLUTTERBY™ Pink Nectar Bush
 These cultivars have been approved for propagation, transportation and sale in Oregon.

Non-regulated interspecific Buddleia varieties
  • Buddleja 'Lilac Chip'
  • Buddleja 'Miss Molly'
  • Buddleja 'Miss Ruby'
For additional information see the ODA website at http://oregon/ODA/PLANT/Nursery/buddleja_process.shtml or call 503-986-4644.

Reminder: Imperata cylindrica listed as federal noxious weed
Japanese Bloodgrass  
Japanese Bloodgrass
By Sherree Lewis, ODA Horticulturist and Alec Ormsby, USDA-PPQ Trade Compliance
 
Although it is popular and widely available in the industry, ‘Japanese Bloodgrass’ or ‘Red Baron,’ Imperata cylindrica, is a federal noxious weed (Title 7, section 360 of the code of federal regulations). Unlike most federal noxious weeds, however, the sale of I. cylindrica is allowed, provided applicable conditions are met. Nurseries should be aware that shipments of I. cylindrica that cross state lines must be accompanied by a federal permit (PPQ Form 526) from USDA’s Plant Protection & Quarantine Program (USDA-PPQ). The regulations allow states to choose whether they want to accept the entry of I. cylindrica. Federal permits are required for states that allow entry. Currently, the states that accept shipments of I. cylindrica are: CA, CT, IL, IN, MA, MI, NE, NV, NY, OH, OK, OR, PA, VA, WA, and WI, and Guam.

Shipments to states not listed above are prohibited. Plants that ship without a federal permit are subject to seizure, and fines can be issued under the Plant Protection Act. Nurseries that stock and sell I. cylindrica should keep a few other points in mind:
  • Only sterile, red cultivars of the plant intended for use as ornamentals are eligible for shipment. The “wild” species form of I. cylindrica (the green form) does not qualify.
  • The list of states willing to accept the plant can change. If there is any doubt about the current status of a state, the shipping nursery should contact the USDA for clarification (see contact information below).
  • The regulation applies to all interstate movement, whether the shipment is being imported or exported. A nursery receiving an import of I. cylindrica should check to make sure the shipper has a permit, or the plants may later be subject to seizure by the USDA. Movement within a state’s borders is not regulated by USDA-PPQ.
  • State noxious weed lists may also include I. cylindrica. Shippers should check with the Department of Agriculture for the state in question for additional restrictions. It is important to note that while I. cylindrica does not explicitly appear on some state noxious weed lists, those states may have requested USDA-PPQ not to issue permits. This is because most state lists incorporate the federal weed list by default.
  • USDA-PPQ usually issues the permits for one year. There is no charge for the permits.
In its "wild" species form, I. cylindrica, also known as “cogongrass,” has been rated one of the world’s 10 worst weeds. Native to SE Asia, it was intentionally introduced into the US in the early 1900s as packing material for imported goods, and also for use as forage and erosion control. The species form spreads aggressively both by seed and rhizomes and shows strong resistance to herbicides. Its ability to adapt to a wide range of growing conditions further contributes to its success as a weed. Because of these characteristics, the plant can out-compete crops and exclude native vegetation, degrading both rangeland and natural habitat. Horticulturally improved cultivars, such as ‘Red Baron,’ are sterile, though some debate remains about whether this sterility is failsafe and whether the plants may still show unwanted spread through rhizomes. The USDA-PPQ permit requirements are designed to monitor trade in I. cylindrica in case of adverse developments with the plant. Also, the permit process serves as a means for keeping the industry informed about potential changes in the law.

Contacts and resources

To apply for a USDA-PPQ permit or for questions about the permit process, contact:

Two other websites that nurseries may find useful regarding state and federal requirements affecting the industry are listed below. The USDA-NRCS site pulls together links to the federal and all state noxious weed lists. The National Plant Board site provides synopses of plant quarantines for each of the 50 states:

Spotted Wing Drosophila
fruit fly  
Spotted wing drosophila
By Lisa Rehms, ODA Horticulturist

A new invasive fruit fly, Drosophila suzukii, commonly known as the Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), was detected in Oregon in 2009. The fruit fly is native to Asia, but has recently surfaced in California (2008), Florida, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada (2009). The adult fly is tiny, approximately 2-3 mm in length with red eyes. The males have a distinctive black spot near the wing tip; in females the spot is absent. Females lay eggs in ripe or rotting fruit by puncturing it with a serrated structure on their abdomen called an ovipositor. The SWD attacks healthy fruit, which distinguishes it from other flies. Hatching larvae mature using the fruit as a food source. The larvae occasionally exit the fruit to pupate into adults. Fertile females deposit eggs in a wide variety of fruit, including apple, blackberry, blueberry, cane berries, cherry, grape, nectarine, peach, persimmon, plum, raspberry, and strawberry.


By now, most of you have caught wind of this exotic pest. There is a potentially high risk of damage to Oregon’s fruit industry. How this destructive pest will affect the nursery industry has yet to be determined. An October 11, 2010 article in the Oregonian stated that the SWD has already been detected in 15 Oregon counties. Possible monetary impacts to the industry could come in the form of shipping restrictions or outright shipping prohibition of host plants; prohibition being a worst-case scenario. There is no easy answer to preventing or limiting the potential spread of SWD. Several factors favor its spread, among them an abundance of available hosts, both native and commercial, a favorable climate, and uncertainty about how it will respond to its new Oregon environment. The prevalent noxious weed, Himalayan blackberry, may exacerbate the spread of SWD, whose fruit provide an unlimited feeding source for the fly.

Use of the following management strategies may help reduce the impact of SWD:
  • Eliminate weeds such as Himalayan blackberry
  • Reduce debris (including fallen fruit)
  • Monitor plants for SWD using sticky or bait traps, including around Himalayan blackberry
  • Once detected, utilize insecticides to eradicate the fly
 
Remember, the highest number of invasive organisms were accidentally introduced from hitchhiking on introduced horticulture plants. We must be vigilant in our efforts to help prevent invasive organisms for the health of Oregon and your business. For additional information, see the following links:
 

Quarantine summaries
The ODA has certain quarantines or regulations regarding nursery and Christmas tree plant material being exported or imported to and from the state. Regulations of plant material exported out of Oregon to other states is summarized in the export quarantine. The import quarantine provides a summary of Oregon and federal plant quarantines for plant material imported into and within the state.
 

Lace bugged
By Karl Puls, ODA Horticulturist
 
Insect damage to ornamental plants is frequently cosmetic but occasionally threatens the health of the plant. The Azalea lace bug, Stephanites pyrioides, is a potentially damaging pest and a recent introduction to the Pacific NW. While it has been established in the eastern and southeastern US for many decades, it was discovered in Oregon (2009) and Washington (2008). Originally from Japan, it appears well adapted to our climate and environment.
 
Lace bugs belong to the Tingidae insect family from the order Hemiptera (true bugs), many of which feed on trees and shrubs. They possess a slender tube-like stylet for a mouthpart, which they use to feed on the tissue of leaves. It’s relatively easy to identify damage from lace bugs. The upper sides of the leaves have small yellow spots, referred to as stippling, while the undersides have small brown to black mottled spots (from fecal material) and an overall “messy,” sometimes shiny appearance. Damage can be severe, affecting a few to a majority of the leaves. The leaves can have a chlorotic, or jaundiced, appearance. Mites, leafhoppers, lygus bugs, and aphids can also cause stippling but the shiny, dark spots on the undersides of leaves are distinctive to lace bugs.
 


Lace bug nymph and adult, Images courtesy of Ken Gray, Oregon State University
 
The Azalea lace bug has two to four generations in some areas of the US and will likely have at least two, and possibly more generations here. It can emerge from its overwintering egg stage anytime from mid-May through mid-June and can reach adulthood within a month, plus or minus a week or two, depending on temperature. There are five nymphal stages, or instars, before adulthood. It is possible to have multiple generations of Azalea lace bugs in the field at the same time, all actively feeding on azalea and rhododendron leaves, and it has even been reported from mountain laurel. Females can lay five to seven eggs a day, up to 300 during their lifespan. A similar appearing lace bug, the Rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis rhodendroni, is part of the same genus as the Azalea lace bug and is indigenous to the US. The rhododendron lace bug has about one generation per year, overwintering in the egg stage. It has four nymphal stages before it emerges as an adult in Summer, typically after June. The nymphs have spines protruding from their abdomens and typically feed in groups.
 
There are various systemic and contact insecticides that control lace bugs. Treatment is ideally done soon after eggs have hatched, typically in mid-May through June. The nymphal stage can last through mid-July and is the most vulnerable stage to treatment. Adults can be treated from summer until the beginning of October, though these treatments will probably be less effective than earlier stages. An alternative strategy uses horticultural oil early in the season (late winter- early spring) to control the egg stage and then introduce or cultivate biological controls, e.g. assassin bugs, spiders, minute pirate bugs, lady beetles, and lacewings to control the nymphs. These insects do not feed exclusively on lace bugs and may provide less than ideal control. Insecticidal soaps may be effective, as well. Since damage on rhododendrons occurs on evergreen leaves, the damage will carry over to the next season, weakening plant vigor, particularly those plants in exposed, sunny areas. Therefore, treat the rhododendrons before damage progresses or adults have an opportunity to mate and lay eggs.
 
On another note, one more lace bug has recently been discovered in the Northwest, this time in British Columbia (2007). Stephanitis takeyai, commonly known as the Andromeda lace bug, was accidentally introduced in about 1945 to the eastern US from Japan. It feeds on Pieris spp. and has been referred to as the Andromeda lace bug, which might cause some confusion, since Andromeda polifolia is a plant altogether different from Pieris spp., which is commonly called Japanese Andromeda. It has not yet been found in Oregon but may be here sooner than later. If anyone observes lace bugs feeding on Pieris spp. in Oregon, gather some specimens and submit them for identification (properly labeled for location, plant name and date) to the Plant Division at the Oregon Department of Agriculture, 635 Capitol Street NE, Salem, Oregon 97301, or hand them off to your nursery inspector for verification. For more information on lace bugs, here are some useful links:

A new insect find in Oregon
Adult Light Brown Apple Moth  
Light brown apple moth adult male
By Helmuth Rogg, Insect Pest Prevention & Management Program Manager

The light brown apple moth (LBAM, Epiphyas postvittana) continues to be a threat to Oregon’s agriculture. This destructive pest continues to expand its range in California feeding on a wide range of fruits and many other plants. It is native pest to Australia and has been introduced into New Zealand and Hawaii. The first detection of LBAM in the continental US was in California in 2007, where it is now confirmed from more than 12 counties.

Following USDA-APHIS protocols, Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA), Insect Pest Prevention and Management (IPPM) staff placed 287 Delta IV traps baited with LBAM pheromone lure in 17 counties in fruit production areas of Oregon. Traps were placed by mid-June, checked bi-weekly, and picked up by the end of September. All traps with suspect moths were examined at the Salem laboratory. IPPM technicians, using smartphones, collected and sent data through wireless communication directly into the national ISIS database. One LBAM was detected in a trap in Polk county.

The positive find in Oregon is being treated as a regulatory incident. IPPM has put out delineation traps this spring (2011) on a heavy grid around the positive find. Intense trapping will continue for two years. If no further moths are found, the area will be declared free from LBAM.

Phytophthora ramorum program 2010 update
Aaron French surveys a nursery for P. ramorum  
Aaron French surveys a nursery for P. ramorum
By Sherree Lewis, ODA horticulturist/SOD survey coordinator and Jan Hedberg, ODA lead horticulturist
 
The 2010 P. ramorum survey season remained similar to the 2009 survey season, but there were a couple of changes to last year’s survey program. The changes included a slightly extended season that began in mid-February and extended until early November. The survey staff included four returning and one new seasonal technician. Jan Hedberg and Sherree Lewis split many of the duties formerly performed by Melissa Boschee.


All interstate host shippers were surveyed resulting in a total of 840 sites that were sampled. In addition, the horticultural inspection staff completed 490 non-host inspections between January and December. A total of nine nurseries were found positive for P. ramorum in 2010. All positive plant samples involved either rhododendron or camellia species. Two shipments of infected plant material were exported and the receiving states were notified. Currently the delimitation, destruction, and monitoring at six nurseries has been completed with the three remaining near completion.


All nurseries that completed the P. ramorum survey and sampling received a new federal compliance agreement to complete and return to the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA). This was necessary because of some changes to the agreement in the required records keeping section. Most nurseries returned signed copies and have received a new federal compliance. Their names and certification numbers have been posted on the ODA web page as required by the United States Department of Agriculture. Several nurseries still have not returned the agreement. If your nursery is one of these, please sign it and return it right away. If the ODA does not have this document on file, your nursery name will not be included on the ODA P. ramorum - free approved list posted on the ODA website (http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/NURSERY/ship_cert_info.shtml) and you will not be eligible to ship P. ramorum host or associated host nursery stock out of the state. Certification is required by state and federal regulation in order to ship host nursery stock from your nursery to destinations outside of Oregon.


If you are not sure if you have returned the new compliance agreement to the ODA, check your copy of your compliance agreement. If it has not been renewed within the last 12 months, contact the ODA right away. We will help determine your P. ramorum certification status. (Jan Hedberg, 503-986-4644). Additional information on SOD regulations: http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/NURSERY/reg_sod.shtml


Gypsy moth/Japanese beetle update
gypsy moth crew  
Crew of ODA's Japanese beetle eradication efforts
By Helmuth Rogg, Insect Pest Prevention & Management Program Manager and Barry Bai, ODA Entomologist
 
Gypsy moth
The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) routinely conducts extensive survey programs for the gypsy moth (GM, Lymantria dispar) and its Asian strain (Asian gypsy moth, AGM). The gypsy moth is the worst forest pest in North America, defoliating millions of acres of deciduous forest every year in the eastern US. ODA’s successful gypsy moth program to early detect and rapidly eradicate newly introduced populations goes back more than 30 years. If gypsy moth were to establish in Oregon it would threaten Oregon’s forest, native moths and other animals, and would increase pesticide use by private landowners and the nursery industry.

Trapping; IPPM staff placed 11,372 GM and AGM traps at selected sites throughout Oregon in 2009. Six GM were caught at five new sites. Two single GM were caught in two traps, about a quarter mile apart, in an RV park on Jantzen Beach, north Portland, Multnomah County. One of the moths was caught in a nun moth trap. All other GM were single catches detected at four new sites: one in Multnomah County (in NE Portland) and three in Clackamas County (two in Aurora and one in Clackamas). Delimitation trapping will be conducted in 2010 around all 2008 and 2009 positive sites. No moths were found at four sites where single GM were caught in 2007, including Sunriver (Deschutes County), Wasco (Sherman County), Murphy (Josephine County), and Clatskanie (Columbia County). These sites are now declared free of GM. No moths were found at four sites where GM were caught in 2008. These include the Portland area (Multnomah and Washington counties) where single moths were detected at three sites, and SW Eugene (Lane County) where two moths were trapped in one trap. One more year of negative delimitation trapping is required before these sites can be declared free of GM.
 
IPPM staff expanded its AGM trapping program to include major cities, highways, and railroads receiving or transporting cargo and containers originating from Asia. Our trapping grid allocation incorporated a risk model developed by USDA-APHIS. A total of 6,836 AGM traps were placed in 2009. Major ports and waterways at risk from ships carrying AGM egg masses were also trapped, including about 90 miles of the Columbia River (from Astoria to Portland) and the port of Coos Bay (Coos County). Nine traps per square mile were placed for three miles inland from waterway margins, followed by four traps per square mile for another two miles inland. The port of Coos Bay was trapped at four traps per square mile.
Gypsy moth adult
Gypsy moth adult


Eradication; IPPM staff directed an eradication program for GM in Eugene, Lane County in spring 2009. A helicopter service contractor treated 626 acres with three aerial applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Delimitation trapping at this site in 2009 did not detect any moths. Delimitation trapping will continue in Eugene in 2010. In 2008, IPPM sprayed 336 acres with Btk in Shady Cove, Jackson County to eradicate a gypsy moth infestation. No GM were trapped this year and the GM infestation is now declared eradicated after two seasons of negative trapping. High AGM populations in Asia and the Russian Far East continue to increase the risk of introduction into the US and Oregon via increased international trade and commerce activities. In 2008, 26 vessels infested with AGM egg-masses were intercepted along the US West Coast.

The site of the 2007 AGM eradication project in St. Helens was surveyed with 799 traps in 2009, following APHIS delimitation protocol. No moths were caught at this site. The AGM in St. Helens is now declared eradicated after three years of negative trapping following the USDA-APHIS AGM eradication guidelines. We do not anticipate a GM or AGM eradication program during 2010 because no breeding gypsy moth populations were detected in 2009.

Japanese beetle
The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) is established in the eastern US and is a major pest of crops, ornamentals, and turf. The Oregon Department of Agriculture places a high priority on detection and eradication of the Japanese beetle to protect Oregon’s nursery, fruit production, the grass seed, and other industries potentially affected by the Japanese beetle. ODA has implemented a quarantine rule and conducts regular inspections to prevent new introductions via aircraft and nursery stock from infested states. We have trapped 285 JB and conducted four successful JB eradication programs since 1988.
Japanese beetle
Japanese beetle adult

Trapping; In 2009, 2,478 JB traps were placed in 23 Oregon counties. A total of 2,237 delimitation traps were set in the Portland metro area and in McMinnville, where a JB was previously caught. The remaining 241 traps were detection traps deployed in cities, towns, and rural areas throughout the state. IPPM staff caught four JB statewide, all in delimitation traps: three at the Portland International Airport (PDX) and one at Swan Island. We did not catch any JB at two of the 2009 eradication sites, the Air National Guard Base (ANG) and Colwood Golf Course. No JB were trapped at the 2008 eradication site in Troutdale. The JB population in Troutdale is now declared eradicated after two years of negative trapping. ANG and Colwood Golf Course will need one more year of delimitation trapping. ODA field personnel did not catch any beetles in McMinnville where a single JB was trapped in 2008. This site will also require one more year of delimitation trapping before it can be declared free of JB. Nationwide, JB populations were lower than in previous years.

Eradication; The IPPM program conducted JB eradication programs during 2009 at three different sites: PDX (95 acres), ANG Base (40 acres), and Colwood Golf Course (130 acres), totaling 265 acres. Treatments using Arena 0.25G in June against the larval stage were followed by Tempo SC Ultra treatments against the adult stage in July and August. Tempo SC Ultra was applied three times, each about two weeks apart. The Colwood golf course was treated with Arena 50 WDG and three applications of Tempo. For the second year, IPPM worked closely with the Port of Portland (PoP) Authorities on cost sharing for the JB eradication projects at PDX. The PoP signed with ODA a memorandum of understanding to contribute a portion of the cost of the eradication project at PDX. The PoP also assisted in the outreach efforts by distributing maps, posters, signs, pesticide information, and treatment schedules to business tenants. The ANG employed its own staff for the treatments while ODA picked up the cost of the pesticides.

Airplane inspection; USDA-APHIS monitors JB populations at eastern airports each year because of the risk of adult JB hitchhiking on aircraft. When eastern population levels pose a risk of live beetles entering aircrafts, the airport becomes regulated. A weekly national conference call was held to share JB information among stakeholders. In 2009, nine airports in six states were regulated by USDA-APHIS for JB. IPPM field staff inspected 44 cargo airplanes and only found two dead JB in UPS aircraft. Inspected cargo carriers included FedEx from Indianapolis, IN, and UPS from Louisville, KY, the only carriers with direct flights from regulated airports to PDX.

Continued cooperation, monitoring, information sharing, and commitment among state and federal regulators, industry representatives, and private consultants are critical to reducing the risk of introduction and establishment of JB in Oregon.

GAIP update
gaip  
GAIP field trip
By Melissa Lujan, Inspection Program Auditor
 
The Grower Assisted Inspection Program (GAIP) will enter its fourth year in 2011. GAIP was designed to use a “systems approach” to help nurseries prevent the introduction and spread of foliar Phytophthora in the Oregon nursery industry. Nurseries in the program are required to look at four critical control points (CCPs) in their operation where Phytophthora can be introduced. CCPs include plant buy-ins, water management, soil/potting media, and used containers. Nurseries are required to adopt best management practices (BMPs) for each CCP in their nursery. Each BMP is documented and proper usage of the BMPs is verified throughout the year by nursery audits. The program currently has 16 participants. Any nursery growing Phytophthora ramorum host plants is encouraged to join GAIP. Participation is voluntary.


Education
As part of the education and outreach effort associated with GAIP, the Oregon Department of Agriculture contracted with Dr. Luisa Santamaria (Oregon State University Extension) to present a series of bilingual workshops in 2010. The workshops were modeled after the OSU Phytophthora Online Course: Training for Nursery Growers http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/dce/phytophthora. The topics covered were:

Biology and Seasonal Activity of Phytophthora
Cultural Control for Pest Prevention - Sanitation
Cultural Control for Pest Prevention - Scouting
Water Management
Media, Substrate, Used containers, and BMP summary

All of the workshops included hands-on activities at the end of the training. Activities for the participants included a lab tour, using ELISA diagnostic kits, terminology review, quiz activities, and potting media experiments. Feedback from nurseries who sent participants has been good. The nurseries reported employees who attended brought their knowledge back to the nursery and are now applying the concepts on the job. We are considering holding the workshop series again if there is enough interest and are exploring other means of sharing this information with nurseries. You do not need to be a GAIP participant to receive the training. Pesticide recertification credits will be available. If your nursery is interested in this training please contact Dr. Luisa Santamaria at 503-678-1264 ext. 112 or Melissa Lujan at 503-510-5529.


Research projects
In 2010, ODA started two research projects that involve GAIP nurseries. While the protocols used in the two studies are similar, the goals are quite different. The first research project was funded by USDA APHIS through the Farm Bill and is referred to as the Farm Bill Study (FBS). The goal of the FBS is to compare the effectiveness of three different certification schemes at mitigating the risk of pest spread through the movement of nursery stock. Six nurseries are involved in the FBS; two are in the GAIP, two are in the United States Nursery Certification Program (US NCP), and two are in neither program and are referred to as shipping point inspection (SPI) nurseries. The SPI is the current, standard certification method for shipping nursery stock while the GAIP and US NCP each practice systems approach methods. Each nursery will be randomly surveyed for five target pests (Phytophthora root rot, Phytophthora foliar blight, bittercress, snails and slugs, and root weevils). The pest incidence for the target pests will be determined. Each participating nursery will be provided with a comprehensive report about the status of the five target pests within their nursery. Results among the six nurseries will be analyzed and a final report comparing the different certification schemes will be prepared. We plan to continue this project for at least two more years.


The second research project focuses on the remaining 14 GAIP nurseries. This project was funded through the USDA Specialty Crop Grant administered by the department. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence or absence of Phytophthora at three of the four CCPs within GAIP nurseries. The goal is to provide the nurseries with feedback on how well their BMPs are working for their water management, used containers, and soil/potting media. Funding for this project is one year.

If you would like to learn more about GAIP, please contact Melissa Lujan GAIP Coordinator 503-510-5529, Gary McAninch Nursery and Christmas Tree supervisor 503-986-4644, or Dr. Nancy Osterbauer Plant Health Program manager 503-986-4666. Additional information about the GAIP can also be found at http://oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/NURSERY/gaip.shtml.

Useful web links and upcoming events
Nursery in Oregon  
Nursery in Oregon
Useful Links
Oregon Department of Agriculture

Oregon State University


United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Serivce

Department of Ecology, Washingon State

National Plant Board

Pacific Northwest Management Handbooks Online
 
Upcoming Events
 

PCIT changes
In 2011, all shipments that need phytosanitary certificates, whether state or federal, will be required to use PCIT. The phytosanitary certificate issuance and tracking system, commonly know as PCIT, is a web-based service administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS). PCIT allows plant exporters to create applications for state and federal phytosanitary certificates online. ODA staff process submitted applications and then provide inspection and completed state or federal certificates for exporters.


An account must be created by the nursery grower on the USDA-APHIS website. Certificate payment is also done online by the grower. The certification fees are as follows; $21 for a federal phytosanitary certificate ($6-USDA and $15-ODA); $15 for a state phytosanitary certificate. The PCIT website can be found at: https://pcit.aphis.usdagov/pcit/faces/index.jsp

When creating an account, follow the directions on the sign up menu for level one access. If you need further assistance, please contact the nursery inspector in your area or Sue Nash at 503-986-4640. You can also contact the PCIT help desk for additional assistance at 1-866-457-7248 or pcithelpdesk@ aphis.usda.gov.
Inspector territory changes and holiday/furlough schedule
map  
Regional divisions for Oregon horticulturists
Due to budget constraints, the ODA has a reduced number of horticulturists. As recently as a year and a half ago, 14 inspectors were available to assist growers throughout Oregon. Currently, 11 inspectors cover the entire state. It is our goal to continue the best quality of service to the Nursery Industry. With that in mind, please allow lead-time when planning and scheduling for exports and submitting PCIT applications. How much time? For PCIT applications, 2 days is the minimum, but more time would be helpful if complications arise such as problems with import permits, pesticide treatments et cetera. Notifying your inspector, by email or phone, can also avoid unnecessary delays. Larger Map
 
2011 ODA Holidays and Furloughs

January 17, Monday- Martin Luther King Jr.’s Day

February 21, Monday- Presidents Day

March 18, Friday- Furlough

May 20, Friday- Furlough

May 30, Monday- Memorial Day

July 4, Monday- Independence Day

September 5, Monday- Labor Day

November 11, Friday-Veterans Day

November 24, Thursday- Thanksgiving Day

December 26, Monday- Christmas