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Apple maggot regulations
Introduction
Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, is a serious pest of apple fruit. Female fruit flies deposit eggs in pulp of fruit in summer. Damage occurs as larvae feed on the fleshy pulp, leaving the fruit spongy and discolored. Often the fruit will drop prematurely. In the fall, larvae emerge from fruit and burrow into the soil where they overwinter as pupae. Adults emerge in the spring as fruit flies, completing the cycle.

R. pomonella is native to eastern North America. The apple maggot was primarily a host to wild hawthorn fruit until the cultivation of apples by European settlers. Other hosts include plum, pear, and cherry. The insect is easily spread through infested fruit and now is established in many parts of the west and Pacific Northwest, including some counties in Oregon.


Regulations
Import quarantine
To protect the apple industry, the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has established a quarantine against Rhagoletis pomonella, Oregon Regulations Statutes 603-052-0121, both within and outside the state to protect apple production in Oregon. All commodities of fresh fruit of hawthorn, all non-commercial fresh fruit of pear, and all fresh fruit of apple, including crabapple, are included in this quarantine.

Quarantined counties within Oregon include; Benton, Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Coos, Curry, Douglas, Gilliam, Hood River, Jackson, Josephine, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Sherman, Tillamook, Yamhill, Wasco, Washington, and the City of Pendleton in Umatilla County. Quarantined states outside of Oregon include; Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin.

Commodities produced in or shipped from areas under quarantine are prohibited entry into the commercial apple producing counties of Gilliam, Grant, Hood River, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla and Wasco counties in Oregon. Commodities may enter restricted counties if the shipment is accompanied by a certificate issued by an authorized agricultural official of the state from which the commodities are shipped indicating compliance by one of the following methods:
  • Commodities are certified by an authorized agricultural official to have been grown in a county not known to be infested with apple maggot, the commodities may be shipped to the Oregon counties of Gilliam, Grant, Hood River, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla and Wasco.
  • Commodities in original, unopened containers, each bearing labels or other identifying marks indicating origin outside the areas under quarantine, may be reshipped to the counties Gilliam, Grant, Hood River, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla and Wasco of Oregon from any point within the areas under quarantine.
  • Repacked commodities admissible if items are certified to have been grown outside an area under quarantine. Each lot or shipment must be certified by an authorized agricultural official to have been grown outside the area under quarantine and that continued identity has been maintained while within the area under quarantine. The commodities may be repacked and shipped by common carrier from any point within the area under quarantine to the Oregon counties of Gilliam, Grant, Hood River, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla and Wasco. The certificate shall specify the state in which commodities were grown, point of repacking and reshipment, amount and kind of commodities comprising the lot or shipment, and the names and addresses of the shipper and consignee.
  • Apples exposed to controlled atmosphere storage eligible for certification. Apples which are exposed to controlled atmosphere storage for a continuous period of 90 days at 38° F (3.3°C) or less, may be admitted into the counties of Hood River, Morrow, Umatilla and Wasco of the state of Oregon provided the storage room or building is approved by the proper authorities in the state of origin as a controlled atmosphere facility and each lot or shipment is accompanied by a certificate.
  • Solid frozen fruits exempt. No restrictions are placed by this regulation on the entry into the Oregon counties of Hood River, Morrow, Umatilla and Wasco of fruits which upon arrival are frozen solid and under refrigeration to assure solid frozen state.
  • Shipments from cold storage at 32° F (0°C). Relevant commodities covered held in cold storage for a continuous period of 40 days or more at 32° F (0°C) or less, may be admitted into the counties of Hood River, Morrow, Umatilla and Wasco of the State of Oregon provided each lot or shipment is accompanied by a certificate.

The following are exceptions to the quarantine:
  • Based on a memorandum of agreement between the Oregon and Washington Departments of Agriculture, the Washington counties of Klickitat and Skamania and the Oregon counties of Hood River and Wasco are considered a single production area. Under the terms of this memorandum, fresh commercial apple fruit produced in this production area may move freely throughout these counties. This exception shall be allowable only as long as this memorandum is in effect.
  • The Director of the Oregon State Department of Agriculture may issue special permits admitting covered commodities not otherwise eligible for entry into of Gilliam, Grant, Hood River, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla and Wasco counties of the State of Oregon from areas under quarantine. The permit is subject to specific conditions and provisions which the director may prescribe to prevent introduction, escape, or spread of the quarantined pests.
 

Export Quarantine
Several western states have quarantines to protect the introduction of apple maggot. The states of Arizona, Idaho, Washington and specific counties in California, have exterior quarantines that prohibit hosts of Rhagoletis pomonella to be shipped from Oregon.

Arizona
Regulated commodities include fresh fruit from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), apple (Malus spp.), apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, plum, prune (Prunus spp.), and pear (Pyrus communis). Fruit prohibited entry unless accompanied by a certificate issued by a plant regulatory officer attesting that the commodity was treated by one of the following methods:
  • Commodity held in an approved controlled atmosphere storage facility for a minimum of 90 continuous days at 38° F
  • Commodity held in an approved cold storage facility for a minimum of 40 continuous days at 32° F.
  • The director may issue a permit exempting treatment for regulated commodities that originate from an area that is certified free of the pests; or if the are is infested, an on-going pest eradication program exists.

Idaho
Regulated commodities include fruit from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.), apple (Malus spp.), and cherry (Prunus spp.). Such commodities from Oregon are prohibited from entering Idaho unless permit is approved by the Idaho State Department of Agriculture. Exemption includes the following:
  • Commodities in original unopened containers, each bearing labels or other identifying marks indicating origin may be shipped into Idaho from any point within the area under quarantine.
  • Commodities exposed to controlled atmosphere storage for a continuous period of 90 days at 38° F (3.3°C) or less may be admitted into Idaho provided the storage room is approved by the proper authorities in the state of origin as a controlled atmosphere facility. Each lot or shipment of such apples to Idaho must be accompanied by a certificate from the state of origin evidencing that the fruit is in its original, unopened containers.
  • Commodities in cold storage for a continuous 40 days or more at 32°F (0°C) or less, may be admitted into Idaho provided each lot or shipment is accompanied by a certificate from the state of origin indicating the fruit is in its original, unopened containers.
  • No restrictions are placed by this regulation on entry into Idaho of fruit that is frozen solid and which is under refrigeration to assure a solid frozen state.

Washington
Regulated commodities include fruit of apple (Malus spp.), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), apricot, nectarine, peach, plum, prune (Prunus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.), quince (Cydonia spp.), and rose hips (Rosa spp.). Regulated articles accompanied by official certificate attesting to compliance may be moved from quarantined areas under the following conditions:
  • Commodities grown outside the quarantined area; identity maintained, and repacked or shipped from within the quarantine area.
  • Commodities exposed to controlled atmosphere storage, in an approved facility, for a continuous period of 90 days at 38º F. or less.
  • Commodities held in cold storage for a continuous period of 40 days at 32º F.
  • Commodities consisting of fresh fruit may be shipped into and within Washington provided that: (a) the origin state conducted an adequate apple maggot survey, (b) WSDA receives immediate written notification of detections of regulated pests in counties where they have not been previously detected, (c) the origin state must certify that the fruit came from an orchard found to be free from regulated pests and not under quarantine by the origin Department of Agriculture.
  • Commercial fresh apples (including crabapples), cherries, hawthorns, plums and prunes produced in Oregon, where apple maggot is known to occur may enter Washington under special permit issued by the Director and accepted by the origin state.


California
Apples or apple trees may move unrestricted in California except to the following counties: Contra Costa, El Dorado, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, Monterey, San Benito, San Joaquin, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Stanislaus, Tulare and Ventura.
Apples, or apple trees (Malus spp.) from Oregon are prohibited entry into these counties except under the following provisions:
  • Commercially packed apples produced using conventional pest control practices are not restricted. Conventional pest control practices defined as treatment with pesticides at label dosages and on a schedule effective against apple maggot.
  • Commercially packed organic apples, apples produced by growers in compliance with and registered under the California Organic Foods Act of 1990, may enter the county if the producing orchard was trapped and found negative for apple maggot.
  • Commercially produced apples may enter the county in bulk for packing, juicing, and processing under a compliance agreement between the importing company and the county agricultural commissioner.
  • Apples trees which are free of fruit and bareroot or free of fruit and certified by origin agricultural officials as being treated with a soil drench effective against apple maggot may enter the county, subject to inspection.