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European pine shoot moth regulations
Introduction
The European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana, was first found in the United States in 1914 on Scotch pine in Long Island, New York. The moth has since become widespread in North America, helped in part by the movement of infested nursery stock. Within Oregon, European pine shoot moth (EPSM) is considered a minor pest in landscapes and infestations are uncommon in the nursery and Christmas tree industries. Three states, including California, Hawaii, and Montana, currently have quarantines effecting Oregon grown pine nursery stock or cut pine Christmas trees. These states either require pesticide treatments or negative trapping within the growing grounds of each nursery or Christmas tree plantation before shipment of pine.
 
 

Regulations
Pine (Pinus spp.) exported from Oregon to California, Hawaii, and Montana, are required to be certified free of EPSM. Certification is based on selective pheromone trapping on pine growing grounds and/or by chemical treatment of nursery stock. Any person who anticipates shipping pine to California or Montana, either directly or through a broker, on the basis of the trapping program, must have all of their pine growing grounds (fields) trapped for EPSM. Generally, locations trapped and found free of EPSM may be eligible for certification. The Nursery and Christmas tree program provides this certification service to licensed Christmas tree and nursery stock growers on an individual request basis. An application for trapping must be completed for all of your pine growing grounds. The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) now charges for EPSM trapping. A basic fee for each licensed nursery or Christmas tree grower requesting EPSM trapping has been established at $85 per location (field) per year.
 
California: To be eligible for certification your growing location must meet one of the following conditions:
  1. The location has been trapped by the ODA and found free of European pine shoot moth during the previous and current seasons.
  2. No more than two moths were trapped during the previous and current seasons and the area was effectively treated during each season using an approved insecticide and accurate records of applications have been kept. Such record will include application date, insecticide name, EPA number, insecticide concentration and applicator's name.
  3. Pines from locations trapped and found positive are fumigated with methyl bromide.

Pine nursery stock to California and Nevada can be certified, even if your trap catch is positive, provided no more than two moths were trapped during each of the previous and current seasons and the area was effectively treated using an approved pesticide.

Montana: To be eligible for certification your growing location must have been found free of European pine shoot moth based on negative trapping data, or the pine fumigated with methyl bromide.

Hawaii: Negative trap catches are not accepted for certification. Pine must be fumigated with methyl bromide prior to shipping.
 
 

Control
Control programs are geared to adult moth flight activity and sprays should begin at about 10% flight. To check for times of adult emergence, peak flight activity and the end of the flight period each year, ODA places test pheromone traps in the Jantzen Beach area of north Portland. This vicinity is near where EPSM was first introduced in Oregon some 40 years ago and has a good population of older infested pine trees in the landscape of many businesses.
 
Trapping results:
Year
 Date of first catch, Date of last catch
2011 June 24, August 4
2010 June 23, July 26
2009 May 29, July 25
2008 June 19, August 1
2007 June 11, July 16
2006 June 12, July 12
2005 May 31, July 18
2004 June 18, July 12
2003 June 4 July 17
2002 June 4, July 19
2001 May 31, July 27
2000 June 1, July 25
1999 June 7, July 30
1998 May 27, July 27
1997 May 22, July 19
1996 June 3, July 15
1995 May 22, July 13
1994
 May 31, July 8
 
  • Average time of 10% emergence was one week after the date of first moth catch. Traps were checked at weekly intervals.
  • There is also a computer model (http://pnwpest.org/wea/ ) available to predict EPSM flight periods based upon degree-days.
  • ODA will continue yearly trapping activities and provide data in order to get the best control effort timing.

 

Additional information
Record keeping requirements: The nursery must maintain complete accurate pesticide application records. Such record will include application date, insecticide name, EPA number, insecticide concentration and applicator's name. A sample application record is included for your convenience. Additional information concerning record keeping requirements can be found at: http://oregon.gov/ODA/PEST/recordkeeping.shtml


EPSM certified nurseries in Oregon:

European pine shoot moth certified nursery/Christmas tree shippers (pdf 40kB)