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Biological Control Agents

​Host Plant ​Biological Agent
​Agent Type ​Distribution
Bull thistle - Cirsium vulgare Cheilosia corydon
crown / root fly ​N/A
Rhinocyllus conicus
seed head weevil ​Widespread
Urophora stylata seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense Altica carduorum ​root miner / defoliating beetle
​Not released

Ceutorhynchus litura crown / root weevil ​Limited
Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Urophora cardui stem gall fly ​Widespread
Dalmatian toadflax - Linaria dalmatica Brachypterolus pulicarius ​seed capsule beetle ​Widespread

Calophasia lunula defoliating moth ​Limited
Gymnetron linariae root-galling weevil ​Widespread
Mecinus janthinus stem boring weevil Widespread​
Diffuse knapweed - Centaurea diffusa Agapeta zoegana root boring moth ​N/A
Bangasternus fausti seed head weevil ​Widespread
Chaetorellia acrolophi seed head fly ​N/A
Cyphocleonus achates root weevil ​N/A
Larinus minutus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Metzneria paucipunctella seed head moth ​Limited
Pterolonche inspersa root boring moth ​Limited
Sphenoptera jugoslavica root boring beetle ​Widespread
Terellia virens seed head fly ​N/A
Urophora affinis seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Urophora quadrifasciata seed head gall fly Widespread​
Eurasian watermilfoil-Myriophyllum spicatum ​Euhrychiopsis lecontei ​stem boring weevil ​Unknown
Field bindweed - Convolvulus arvensis Aceria malherbae eriophyid mite ​Limited
Tyta luctuosa defoliating moth Limited​
French broom - Genista monspessulana Bruchidius villosus seed beetle ​N/A
Gorse - Ulex europaeus Exapion ulicis seed weevil ​N/A
Tetranychus lintearius spider mite ​Widespread
Italian thistle - Carduus pycnocephalus Cheilosia corydon crown / root fly Widespread​
Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Trichosirocalus horridus  crown/root weevil ​Widespread
Leafy spurge - Euphorbia esula Aphthona abdominalis ​flea beetle ​N/A

Aphthona cyparissiae root / defoliating flea beetle ​Widespread
Aphthona czwalinae root / defoliating flea beetle ​Widespread
Aphthona flava root / defoliating flea beetle ​Widespread
Aphthona lacertosa root / defoliating flea beetle Widespread​
Aphthona nigriscutis root / defoliating flea beetle ​Widespread
Oberea erythrocephala root / stem boring beetle ​Widespread
Meadow knapweed - Centaurea jacea x nigra Larinus minutus seed head weevil ​Limited
Larinus obtusus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Metzneria paucipunctella seed head moth ​Limited
Urophora quadrifasciata seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Mediterranean sage - Salvia aethiopis Phrydiuchus tau root / crown weevil ​Widespread
Phrydiuchus spilmani root / crown weevil ​Widespread
Milk thistle - Silybum marianum Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Musk thistle - Carduus nutans Cheilosia corydon crown / root fly ​Unknown
Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Trichosirocalus horridus crown/root weevil ​Limited
Urophora solstitialis seed head gall fly ​N/A
Plumeless thistle - Carduus acanthoides Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil ​N/A
Puncturevine - Tribulus terrestris Microlarinus lareynii seed weevil ​Limited
Microlarinus lypriformis stem boring weevil Unknown​
Purple loosestrife- Lythrum salicaria Galerucella calmariensis defoliating beetle ​Widespread
Galerucella pusilla defoliating beetle ​Widespread
Hylobius transversovittatus root weevil ​Widespread
Nanophyes marmoratus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Rush skeletonweed - Chondrilla juncea Bradyrrhoa gilveolella root boring moth ​Limited
Cystiphora schmidti stem / leaf gall midge ​Widespread
Eriophyes chondrillae bud gall mite ​Widesprad
Puccinia chondrillina leaf rust fungus ​Widespread
Russian knapweed - Acroptilon repens Subanguina picridis leaf stem gall nematode ​Limited
Russian thistle - Salsola kali Coleophora klimeschiella leaf mining moth ​Widespread
Coleophora parthenica stem boring moth ​Widespread
Saint Johnswort - Hypericum perforatum Agrilus hyperici root / stem boring beetle ​Limited
Aplocera plagiata defoliating moth ​Widespread
Chrysolina hyperici defoliating beetle ​Widespread
Chrysolina quadrigemina defoliating beetle ​Widespread
Zeuxidiplosis giardi leaf gall midge ​N/A
Saltcedar - Tamarix ramosissima Diorhabda elongata defoliating beetle ​Widespread
Scotch broom - Cytisus scoparius Bruchidius villosus seed beetle ​Widespread
Exapion fuscirostre seed weevil ​Widespread
Leucoptera spartifoliella twig mining moth ​Widespread
Scotch thistle - Onopordum acanthium Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Trichosirocalus horridus crown/root weevil ​N/A
​Slender-flowered thistle - Carduus tenuiflorus Cheilosia corydon crown / root fly ​Widespread
Rhinocyllus conicus seed head weevil Widespread
Trichosirocalus horridus crown/root weevil ​Widespread
Spotted knapweed - Centaurea stoebe Agapeta zoegana root boring moth ​Widespread
Bangasternus fausti seed head weevil ​Widespread
Chaetorellia acrolophi seed head fly ​Limited
Cyphocleonus achates root weevil ​Limited
Larinus minutus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Larinus obtusus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Metzneria paucipunctella seed head moth ​Widespread
Pelochrista medullana root boring moth ​N/A
Pterolonche inspersa root boring moth ​N/A
Sphenoptera jugoslavica root boring beetle ​Widespread
Terellia virens seed head fly ​Limited
Urophora affinis seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Urophora quadrifasciata seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Squarrose knapweed - Centaurea virgata Urophora affinis seed head gall fly ​N/A
Urophora quadrifasciata seed head gall fly ​N/A
Tansy ragwort -Senecio jacobaea Botanophila seneciella ​seed head fly
Widespread​
Longitarsus jacobaeae root / defoliating flea beetle ​Widespread
Tyria jacobaeae defoliating moth ​Widespread
Yellow starthistle - Centaurea solstitialis Bangasternus orientalis seed head weevil ​Widespread
Chaetorellia australis seed head fly Widespread​
Eustenopus villosus seed head weevil ​Widespread
Larinus curtus seed head weevil Widespread​
Urophora quadrifasciata seed head gall fly ​Widespread
Urophora sirunaseva seed head fly ​Widespread
Yellow toadflax - Linaria vulgaris Brachypterolus pulicarius flower beetle ​Limited
Gymnetron antirrhini seed head weevi Widespread
Mecinus janthinus ​stem boring weevil ​Unknown