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yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon)
USDA Symbol: LAGA2

ODA rating: B
Yellow archangel risk assessment
Noxious weed listing process

Oregon yellow archangel distribution
Other common names
false Lamium, Herman's Pride, variegatum
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Images courtesy of Doug Shaller, Lincoln County

If images are downloaded and used from the ODA web site please be sure to credit the photographer.
Yellow archangel is a fast growing perennial ground cover in the mint family, with showy yellow flowers that appear between April and June this plant is popular in gardens. Leaves are typically variegated with silvery-grey markings and are oval-shaped and toothed.  Flowers are small, yellow, with a "hooded" upper petal and "lipped" lower petal that are characteristic of the Mint family. Flowers are found in numerous clusters occurring at the stem nodes and also at the stem termini. Yellow archangel reproduces vegetatively from nodes on stems as well as stem fragments and seed. This plant is mostly limited to temperate regions, with it lacking adaptations for high temperatures and low moisture content.  It grows particularly well in damp woods and shaded areas, but is limited from dry soils.  Yellow archangel will survive heavy frost damage with no damage to leaves (Packham, 1983). It can grow in areas waterlogged during winter, but not continuously saturated throughout an entire year.  Yellow archangel's propensity for moist soils make it a well suited for riparian habitat, and it has been observed growing rapidly along lower "receiving" slopes and stream banks (Packham, 1983). 
Yellow archangel can invade the shady forest floor habitat that constitutes a large percentage of habitat in western Oregon. Control of this species in forested parkland and on private property is difficult and can be expensive. The majority of economic cost can be attributed to these control efforts. A movement of yellow archangel into managed forest plantations could increase reforestation costs as rhizomes are stimulated by land disturbance and smother conifer seedlings. Whether escaping from gardens, or areas where it was dumped as garden waste, the plant can aggressively form dense stands that shade out and dominate less tenacious native plants.  It has been noted growing up to waters edge, but has not been seen moving into saturated soils where it could become a riparian invader.  Movements into multiple ecological zones is possible as the plant is associated with dumping of waste on roadsides, this is especially worrisome as yellow archangel is known to be able to propagate in many soil types and shade levels. 
The native range of yellow archangel is in the British Isles, continental Europe and Scandinavia.
Distribution in Oregon
Yellow archangel is known to occur in both Oregon and Washington.  Within Oregon it has been mainly associated with the urban-wildland interface where dumping of yard waste and garden escapee populations are present. The known counties with populations include but are not limited to: Polk, Lane, Lincoln, Tillamook, Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas, and Columbia counties.
Biological controls
There are no approved biocontrol agents available for release in Oregon at this time.