Section Three: Objectives & Strategies
|Objectives & Strategies
|The following section provides 10 objectives and identifies strategies
for effective implementation. The recommended strategies following
each objective are specific areas needing attention as identified by the
strategic plan working group. These objectives and strategies were
identified by the strategic plan working group as priorities for
implementing effective noxious weed management.
Objectives and strategies outlined by this plan are:
Objective One: Leadership and Organization
Strategy One: Provide consistent statewide and local leadership and organization
Objective Two: Cooperative Partnerships
Strategy Two: Develop and expand partnerships
Objective Three: Planning and Prioritizing
Strategy Three: Develop and maintain noxious weed lists and plans
Objective Four: Education and Awareness
Strategy Four: Provide education and awareness
Objective Five: Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
Strategy Five: Continue to support and advocate the principles of
Objective Six: Early Detection and Control of New Invaders
Strategy Six: Implement early detection and control
Objective Seven: Noxious Weed Information System and Data
Strategy Seven: Upgrade Noxious Weed Information System
Objective Eight: Monitoring and Evaluation
Strategy Eight: Monitor noxious weed projects to evaluate
Objective Nine: Policy, Mandates, Law, Compliance and Enforcement
Strategy Nine: Use mandates, policy and law to encourage
Objective Ten: Funding and Resources
effective weed management
Strategy Ten: Increase base level funding for state, county, local,
and federal noxious weed control programs to address priorities
and to assist private land managers.
Strategy Eleven: Additional funding sources for weed control
|Objective One: Leadership and Organization
|Leadership and organization are required to direct cooperative
noxious weed projects and allocate limited resources. Leadership is
needed at the federal, state, and local levels to organize weed control
projects, develop partnerships, provide assistance, and implement
Provide consistent statewide and local leadership and organization.
1. Leadership and Organization through ODA
Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) is designated as the
2. County and Local Programs
primary agency that provides leadership for noxious weed
management. The number and diversity of national, regional, and
state noxious weed issues necessitates the need for leadership
and organization at the state level. ODA and the Oregon State
Weed Board (OSWB) will continue to provide statewide
coordination of noxious weed management, oversight of
statewide priorities, and assist with local efforts.
County programs provide the vital role of organization and
3. State and Federal Natural Resources and Land Management
implementation of local control programs. Counties are the
primary local contact and provide the enforcement of the state
weed laws and county ordinances.
It is necessary that agencies take an active role in noxious weed
• Establish a noxious weed coordinator position within each
• Encourage agencies to assist and cooperate with statewide and
local program objectives
• Encourage agencies to identify and develop policy,
management plans, and implement control projects
|Objective Two: Cooperative Partnerships
|Noxious weeds do not respect ownership and watershed boundaries.
Effective management requires support and participation from all
parties. Cooperative management of noxious weed control allows for
prioritizing and pooling of limited resources. Partnerships allow
management across jurisdictional and ownership boundaries.
Develop and expand partnerships.
Encourage and support partnerships between private landowners, state
agencies, federal agencies, tribal governments, counties, weed
management areas, watershed associations, and conservation groups.
Develop contacts, memorandums of understanding, and cooperative
agreements to encourage the development of partnerships.
1. Agency Coordination and Partnerships
• Designate formal weed control contacts between ODA and
state and federal natural resource and land management
• Encourage partnerships to address noxious weed management
on public lands
• Network among agencies to facilitate noxious weed
• Develop a statewide memorandum of understanding between
3. Cooperative agreements
state and federal agencies to foster cooperative partnerships
for noxious weed projects
• Use cooperative agreements to facilitate control projects
4. Weed Management Areas
• Actively promote and develop Cooperative Weed
5. Build Partnership with Private Land Managers
Management Areas to organize local control efforts
• Actively promote and foster partnerships with the private
sector. Work through existing state, county, and federal
programs and state and local weed control boards. Assist
private control efforts through technical assistance, planning,
implementation, and cost-assistance.
|Objective Three: Planning and Prioritizing
|Planning and prioritizing allocates limited resources and provides
direction for implementation of programs and projects.
Develop and maintain noxious weed lists at the state and county
levels. Develop and implement noxious weed management plans at
state, federal, and local levels.
1. Maintain State Noxious Weed List
OSWB will continue to list and rate weeds at the state level as
2. Statewide Plans and Priorities
“A”, “B”, and “T” classified weeds.
OSWB and ODA will continue to develop and maintain
3. County Weed List
statewide management plans and objectives for state priority
listed “A” and “T” noxious weeds.
County weed boards should continue to list and classify weeds at
4. Regional Plans
the local level.
Organize and conduct planning meetings among ODA, county
5. State and Federal Agencies Plans
weed boards, weed management areas, watershed groups, and
private land managers to assist plan development, prioritization,
and implementation of control projects.
As major land stewards, agencies have the regional
6. Western States
responsibility to plan and provide noxious weed control projects
on lands under their jurisdiction.
Planning among western states is important to address regional
and national issues such as biocontrol, introductions of new
invasive species, research and funding, sharing of information,
and to organize support for federal noxious weed control
• Use organizations such as WWCC, INWAC, FICMNEW, and
the Western Society of Weed Science (WSWS) as forums to
identify, plan, move issues forward and gain political support.
|Objective Four: Education and Awareness
|The public is generally not aware of the economic and environmental
impacts of noxious weeds. There is a need to improve awareness of
noxious weeds and to provide educational information to cooperators,
land managers, and the public. Pamphlets, bulletins, and brochures are
useful at meetings, for follow-up consultations, and educational
purposes. As people become more aware of noxious weeds, the
probability of detecting them is greatly increased, which allows for
more effective and timely control. Education and awareness assist
weed identification, reporting new infestations, prevention and
control, and fosters cooperation and partnerships.
State and federal natural resource agencies and county noxious weed
control programs responded strongly, in an August 2000 ODA survey,
indicating the need for more agency and public awareness of noxious
Provide education and awareness.
Increase awareness of noxious weeds among the general public,
private landowners and public land managers. Increase awareness of
decision-makers (managers, policy makers and Legislators) and
encourage their participation in developing and achieving solutions.
1. Develop and Implement Noxious Weed Education Programs
2. Develop Educational Materials
Noxious weed cooperators should develop pamphlets, brochures,
video, CDs, and other educational materials.
3. Provide Noxious Weed Information
A. Weed Programs
• Provide noxious weed education through ODA, counties,
federal agencies, and local programs.
4. State and Federal Agency Awareness
• Support OSU Extension as a resource to provide noxious
• Encourage organizations (i.e., The Nature Conservancy,
D. Noxious Weed Internet Site
Blue Mountain RC & D, Douglas County Livestock
Association) to provide noxious weed information to
their members and the public.
• ODA will develop and maintain web based information.
E. News Releases
Provide noxious weed identification, technical
information, and resource materials. Include a noxious
weed reporting form and updated noxious weed
• ODA and cooperators will produce news releases on
priority noxious weed issues
Develop and implement noxious weed awareness programs.
A. ODA will work, through contacts with natural resource and
land management agencies, to develop programs that
increase awareness within agencies.
• Provide information to increase awareness with
• Conduct identification education with field staff
• Provide technical assistance to aid planning and
|Objective Five: Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
|IWM is a multi-disciplinary approach to weed control based on the
best available science and experience of weed managers. Control
options are based on site-specific information and the best strategies
for effective management are implemented. IWM uses all available
methods and techniques for noxious weed control including
prevention, mechanical, cultural, chemical, and biological control.
Continue to support and advocate the principles of IWM.
Support training and technical assistance. Support research on IWM
practices to improve and provide effective methods of control.
1. Technical Assistance
Transfer information from weed control professionals to assist
local programs, state and federal agencies, and private land
A. Develop and provide technical and general information to
facilitate noxious weed management through bulletins,
pamphlets, classes, and web sites
B. ODA will continue to host the Oregon Interagency Noxious
Research and develop IWM methods
A. IWM Methods
• Establish test plots to assess treatment and application
B. Biological Control
• Evaluate control methods and refine techniques to
• Assess herbicide treatments, timing, rates, and
• Review cultural methods such as grazing and rotations
• Conduct demonstration projects
• Evaluate integration of chemical and biological control
• Develop and evaluate competitive planting methods
• Fully implement available biological control
• Establish nursery release sites of new biocontrol agents
• Monitor and evaluate impacts of biological control
• Review and evaluate target weeds
• Assist foreign exploration for new biocontrol agents
• Complete host specificity testing for new biocontrol
• Write petitions for introduction and release of approved
• Identify restoration needs
• Refine and improve restoration techniques
Develop and implement prevention programs on a statewide
A. Weed-Free Feed, Straw and Mulch
• Encourage the use of weed-free feeds and mulch on
B. Weed Free Seed
• Implement a noxious weed-free forage, feed, and straw
• Provide certification of weed-free hay, straw, and feed
• Provide certification of straw and mulch for restoration
• Develop and distribute guidelines for procurement of
C. Restoration Guidelines
weed free seed
• Maintain and update State Noxious Seed List to prohibit
sale of contaminated seed
• Organize an interagency committee to identify
D. Risk Assessment
restoration needs and develop restoration guidelines for
noxious weed control sites
• Develop and formalize a process of risk assessment for new
invasive weeds and possible listing as state noxious weeds
|Objective Six: Early Detection & Control of New Invaders
|Prevention and treatment of new noxious weed introductions is the
most successful, cost effective, and least environmentally damaging
means of control. If new invasive noxious weeds are allowed to go
unchecked, economic losses will exceed the present control costs of
eradication or containment by several orders of magnitude. After
initial introduction of a new invasive plant, there is a short period of
opportunity for eradication and containment. Once permanently
established, a new invader becomes a long-term
management problem. A current economic assessment of six potential
weeds in Oregon demonstrates the benefit of early detection and
control of new invaders. Long-term contingency planning for “A” classified
weeds is critical in maintaining a proper defense against them. Having
emergency funds available to implement early detection and treatment
of new invaders can prevent their widespread establishment and
Currently the state lists 37 species as “A” classified weeds. These
weeds are of known economic importance and occur in the state in
small enough infestations to be contained or eradicated, or are an
imminent threat because they occur in neighboring states.
Implement early detection and control.
Prevent the establishment and spread of new invader noxious weeds
through early detection, eradication, and containment. List and
evaluate the threats of new invaders. Develop contingency plans for
new and/or potential invading weeds.
1. Watch List
Formalize a process at the state level to identify new species for
2. Contingency Planning
potential listing as state listed noxious weeds. Develop and
maintain a Watch List of invasive plants to evaluate for possible
addition to the State Noxious Weed List.
ODA and OSWB will develop contingency plans for all state “A
Listed” noxious weeds to facilitate early detection and control.
3. Early Detection and Control
A. Work with affected land managers, industries, and state and federal agencies to develop plans to address new invader
Expand the efforts of ODA and its cooperators for early
detection and control programs to decrease the time between
initial detection and treatment of priority noxious weeds.
A. Survey for priority noxious weeds
4. Proposed Invasive Species Council
B. Implement timely treatment of new invaders
Participate in the proposed Oregon Invasive Species Council
(ODA and other state and federal agencies)
A. Risk Assessment
Develop a process to asses risk of new invasive weeds.
B. Evaluate the economic and environmental risk of new
C. Evaluate imported plant materials to prevent the
introduction of noxious weed reproductive plant parts.
D. List and regulate the importation of known invasive plants.
|Objective Seven: Noxious Weed Info. System and Data Collection
|Survey, inventory, and mapping are very important processes for
documenting weed infestations. Quality collection and use of weed
distribution data provides information that is needed to make
informed decisions and implement effective eradication, containment,
and control projects. Prioritization of noxious weed projects cannot be
done until infestations are accurately delimited. The collection of
At the present time, noxious weed information is fragmented and is
recorded and stored in various formats and locations. Information is
collected and used by state, county, and federal programs. A
standardized, centralized data collection and record storage system for
noxious weed information is needed.
Upgrade Noxious Weed Information System
Update the ODA system for noxious weed survey, inventory, and
mapping. Update Geographical Information System (GIS) hardware
and software, develop and test a standardized data collection process
and reporting procedure.
1. Comprehensive Survey
Coordinate with federal, state, and county programs to
implement, maintain, and update a comprehensive statewide
2. Repository and Provider of Information
inventory of noxious weeds
ODA should act as the repository and resource for noxious weed
information for the state
|Objective Eight: Monitoring and Evaluation
|The collection of information allows informed decision-making and
long-term planning. Monitoring and evaluation directs limited
resources toward effective management activities.
Monitor noxious weed projects to evaluate effectiveness.
1. Evaluate Projects
Monitor and evaluate projects for effectiveness and
2. Evaluate Progress
Develop and implement measures of progress in noxious weed
Mandates, laws, and policies direct and strengthen the management of
noxious weeds. They give authority and direction to resource and land
management agencies and heighten the importance of noxious weed
management. Oregon weed law gives governing agencies the
authority for enforcement and compliance.
|Objective Nine: Policy, Mandates, Law, Compliance, & Enforcement
|Mandates, laws, and policies direct and strengthen the management of
noxious weeds. They give authority and direction to resource and land
management agencies and heighten the importance of noxious weed
management. Oregon weed law gives governing agencies the
authority for enforcement and compliance.
Use mandates, policy and law to encourage effective weed
1. Address Current Gaps
Develop law, mandates, and policy to address current gaps.
A. Level of Services by State Agencies
2. Enforce existing policy and law
Mandate a level of service for noxious weed management
by state natural resource and land management agencies.
Include noxious weed management as a part of natural
• All natural resource agencies should establish a noxious
B. Authority Gap
• Agencies would be encouraged to assist and cooperate
with local and statewide objectives.
• Agencies would be encouraged to develop policy and
plans to address the spread and control of noxious weeds.
• Agencies should budget resources to implement noxious
weed control plans.
Develop law to address authority gaps in noxious weed
enforcement. ODA should have parallel authority with the
counties for state “A” listed weeds in order to address weed
control of statewide concern where local programs do not
C. Risk Assessment
Develop a formal policy to address risk of introduction of
new invasive weeds and potential listing as State “A” listed
noxious weeds.D. Imports of Invasive Plants
Explore authority and policy to regulate the importation of
known or potentially invasive plants.
A. Enforce existing noxious weed law
County weed control programs, courts, and weed boards
should enforce existing weed laws to assist and address the
needs of local interests. County programs should be the
primary level of enforcement for noxious weed law (ORS
B. Enforce Noxious Weed Quarantine
ODA should continue to enforce the recently enacted
noxious weed quarantine to prevent sales of state listed
noxious weeds (OAR 603-52-1200).
|Objective Ten: Funding and Resources
|Stable, consistent funding dedicated to noxious weed control is
needed. Noxious weed management requires consistent ongoing
coordination, planning, and implementation of treatment projects to
effectively manage noxious weeds. A recent survey of state and
federal natural resource agencies and county weed control programs
ranks funding as the primary need for implementing effective weed
Increase base level funding for state, county, local, and federal
noxious weed control programs to address priorities identified by the
respective programs and to assist private land managers.
The total additional budgetary needs identified by state, county, and
federal programs are estimated at $12.4 million per year. Given the
conservative estimate of losses from noxious weeds is identified at
$83 million annually, spending an additional $5.2 million from state
and local sources and $7.2 million from federal sources would be a
prudent investment. The dedication of additional resources towards
noxious weed management is supported by the findings of a current
economic assessment that accompanies this plan, Economic Analysis
of Containment Programs, Damages, and Production Losses From
Noxious Weeds in Oregon.
1. State Programs
Support priority noxious weed control activities identified by
ODA and state natural resource and land management agencies.
A. ODA Noxious Weed Control Program
The ODA weed control program needs additional resources
2. County Programs
to maintain its professional staff. The cost to restore the
statewide role and focus on priorities, as recommended by
this plan, is an additional $375,000 per year.
• Providing statewide leadership for noxious weed
B. Oregon State Weed Board (OSWB)
• Developing and coordinating cooperative state, county,
and federal projects
• Assisting private landowners
• Providing education, technology transfer, and
• Implementing biological control projects
• Implementing new invader control and eradication
• Implementing survey, inventory and mapping projects
• Implementing prevention programs
OSWB needs additional funds to address the needs of
education, research, and to provide assistance and incentive
programs in the form of grants and cost-share. OSWB cost
assistance should be used to develop and assist local weed
control programs and to address priorities on private lands.
Funds are also needed to address needs for weed control
education, Integrated Weed Management (IWM) research,
weed control emergencies, and grant administration.
Additional needs are $1 million per year for cost-assistance,
education, research, weed control emergencies, and grant
administration. Maintain existing $1.1 million per biennium
for noxious weed grants.
Priorities for OSWB Include:
• Administering grants for local control projects
C. State Natural Resource and Land Management Agencies
• Providing funds for county cost-share and program
• Funding education and awareness programs
• Funding research for Integrated Weed Management
• Addressing weed control emergencies and special
State natural resource and land management agencies need
additional resources to address basic weed control priorities.
State agencies estimate the additional need at $1 million per
Priorities for each Agency Include:
• Establishing and providing noxious weed coordinator
• Increasing agency awareness
• Developing noxious weed control plans
• Implementing control activities
• Developing and maintaining cooperative partnerships
Counties need to fund and support local weed control boards and
programs. OSWB should have funds for assistance to counties
through cost-share, and grants. A basic county noxious weed
control program costs about $150,000 per year. Approximately
two thirds of Oregon’s 36 counties do not have active programs;
thus, the approximate need to correct this shortfall is estimated at
$3.2 million per year.
3. Federal Programs
• Developing and coordinating local programs
• Implementing local control projects
• Implementing survey, inventory, and mapping projects
• Assisting private landowners
• Providing education and consultation
• Implementing prevention activities
Support federal noxious weed programs by working with federal
agencies, noxious weed working groups, other western states,
and congressional delegates to encourage the allocation of
additional resources to address noxious weeds on federal lands.
Federal agencies estimate an additional $7.2 million per year is
needed to adequately implement weed control programs on
federal lands in Oregon.
A. Oregon Cooperators Can Assist Federal Programs
• Supporting and encouraging federal agencies to develop,
fund, and implement noxious weed control projects
• Supporting OSWB and local weed boards to voice
concerns and to address federal and national issues (e.g.,
letters to agency heads, members of Congress)
• Participating in noxious weed work groups ( i.e.,
WWCC, Intermountain Noxious Weed Advisory Council
(INWAC), FICMNEW) to assist federal program funding
and address national issues
Additional funding sources for weed control programs
1. Explore and Develop Alternative Funding Sources
The introduction and spread of invasive weeds is an unfortunate
by-product of human activity. New introductions have increased
dramatically in the past decade due to the increased ease and
speed of world travel and the expansion of global commerce.
Local spread of noxious weeds can be natural with wind, water,
and animals; but human activities such as, recreation, vehicle
travel, and the movement of contaminated equipment, products,
and animals greatly increase the rate and distance of dispersal.
There is a need for funding that is tied to the source and
magnitude of the problem. Funding sources are needed that
mirror trends in those aspects of weed dispersal that contain a
component of risk for weed introduction and spread. The
following is a list of examples to provoke thought about
alternative funding sources.
A. Imported Plant Material
• A small percentage of intentionally introduced plants
have become invasive weeds (e.g. kudzu, Scotch broom,
Himalayan blackberry, and purple loosestrife). Weeds also
hitchhike on imported nursery stock. Since the importation
of plants carries a level of risk, this activity should help pay
for programs that respond to new weed problems.
B. Imported Seed
• A surcharge could be added to the nursery license fee for
importers of plant material. Nursery license fees are
currently based on a sliding scale of gross purchases or
gross sales. A similar sliding scale fee could be added for
imported plants. Nurseries importing a large amount of
plant material would pay more; those dealing only in
Oregon-grown plants would not pay an additional fee.
• Imported seed often contains small amounts of weed
C. Trade and Travel
seed. Some weed contaminants will establish and become
problems in the future (e.g., small broomrape). The risk
associated with seed imports could be offset by adding a
surcharge to the seed dealers license related to the
amount of imported seed from out-of-state.
• Weeds hitchhike on vehicles, trucks, railroad cars, boats,
ships, and airplanes. Many weeds, like the knapweeds,
are “roadrunners” that spread rapidly along roads and
railroad tracks. Hydrilla, an aquatic weed not yet
established in Oregon, threatens to arrive any day
hanging from a boat’s propeller or clinging to its trailer.
• One way of connecting revenues to the source of the
problem is to expand the use of the gas tax. Gas taxes are
used primarily for highway maintenance in Oregon, but
perhaps the definition of highway maintenance should
include protecting Oregon’s lands from deleterious weeds
that are spread along roadways by cars and trucks. Other
examples could include international travel and shipment
fees, port fees, fees on driver licenses for new residents,
and license fees on ATVs and boats.