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Abstract XV

Asphalt Additive Test

Ten Year Performance at Asphalt Additive Test Sections: Lava-Butte Fremont Highway Junction

The durability of hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) overlays is important to the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), as this is the most common form of surface rehabilitation on state roads. To see if several HMAC additives available in Oregon increased overlay life, test sections were paved in 1985. The eight test and two control sections are located on US Route 97, 31 km (19.25 m) south of Bend, Oregon. The top course is a 38-51 mm (1.48-1.99 in) thick lift of HMAC using the experimental additives. The combined base and leveling course is a 102-114 mm (3.98-4.45 in) thick lift of HMAC, using a combination of aggregate treated with lime and Pave Bond asphalt additive as anti-stripping treatments. The pavement under the overlay was badly alligatored and had frequent thermal cracks.

The aggregate is crushed river cobbles composed mainly of basalt and other extrusive igneous rocks. The experimental mixes are: Plus Ride 12® with Pave Bond®, Arm-R-Shield®, Fiber Pave® 3010, Boni Fibers ® B, Class "C" with Pave Bond® and Lime, Class "C" with Lime, CA(P)-1 and CA(P)-1 with Lime. The Class "C" and in some cases, Class "C" with Pave Bond® pavements are the control sections.
After ten years and approximately 1,522,000 and 1,721,000 equivalent axle loads in the northbound and southbound lanes, respectively; all pavements resisted rutting, maintained a smooth ride and retained high friction numbers. The only significant distress on any sections were cracking and raveling. The Arm-R-Shield® had the highest performance rating, as it had superior resistance to fatigue cracking, block cracking, and raveling. The Fiber Pave® 3010, Boni Fibers ® B, Class "C" with Pave Bond®, Class "C" with Pave Bond® and Lime, and Class "C" pavements had similar performance. The Plus Ride with Pave Bond® section performed worse than the controls. It had a low resistance to fatigue cracking, block cracking, and raveling. The CA(P)-1 and CA(P)-1 with Lime sections also performed worse than the controls. They had a low resistance to fatigue, block and transverse cracking.


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Isotropic Reinforcing

Concrete Bridge Decks with Isotropic Reinforcing
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has used traditional truss bar layout for bridge deck reinforcement for many years.  Studies by other states found the same performance using an isotropic deck grid steel reinforcement layout.  The isotropic system uses less steel, which lowers the cost of the deck and reduces distress caused by rebar corrosion.  Three bridges included in this study were built with isotropic reinforced decks.  Within two years all the decks had some minor initial cracking.  The deck on the Santiam Overflow no. 4 cracked soon after the forms were removed.  This cracking could be related to the seismic activity in the area.  The other two decks also cracked, but the cracks are very tight and do not appear to be through cracks.  The short-term performance is as good as standard deck rebar layouts.
 

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Pavement Smoothness Indices Research Brief

Pavement Smoothness Indices Research Brief

Many in the asphalt industry believe that initial pavement smoothness directly relates to pavement life.  Public perception of smoothness is also important.  Oregon is interested in determining the appropriate method of measurement to quantify smoothness in terms of performance and public perception.  Several smoothness indices exist, however, they need to be compared and evaluated for application in Oregon.
 
Four types of indices may be used to measure pavement roughness (NCHRP 1-31, 1997):

  • Subjective rating indices (PSR: Present Serviceability Rating),
  • Mechanical filter-based indices (MRN: Mays Ride Number, PI: Profile index, SV: Slope Variance),
  • Profile-based indices--mechanical system simulation (RARV: Reference Average Rectified Velocity, RARS: Reference Average Rectified Slope, IRI: International Roughness Index, HRI: Half-car Roughness Index, RN: Sayers Ride Number, TRS: Telescoped Rolling Straightedge),
  • Profile-based indices--filtered and weighted (RQI: Michigan DOT Ride Quality Index, RN: Janoff Ride Number, RN,: Spangler Ride Number, MO: Mays Meter Output Function of RMSVA)

 

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QC/QA Procedures for Open-Graded Mixes

Establishment of QC/QA Procedures for Open-Graded Mixes


The State of Oregon has employed the use of porous concrete surfaces (E- and F-mixes) since the 1970s. The use of porous mixes has increased substantially in the past five years. Previously, no work had been done to evaluate whether the quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) procedures used for dense-graded mixes were appropriate for open-graded mixes. This study consisted of a literature review, expert survey, and field survey of selected projects to determine the relative importance of factors such as asphalt content, gradation, voids, and moisture content on the long-term performance of the pavement.
 
The overall objective achieved by this study was the development of a basis for an improved QC/QA specification for porous pavements in Oregon. Specific objectives achieved include:
1. evaluated experiences of others to control quality of open-graded mixes;
2. conducted a field survey of selected projects in Oregon to determine what factors most affect pavement performance;
3. recommended modifications to existing specifications which would include pay adjustments;
4. developed a plan for implementing the resulting recommendations.
 
This study found that the factors to be controlled during the production of porous pavements include asphalt content, gradation, and moisture content. The recommended weights for computing the composite pay factor were selected to contribute to improving contractor performance. The 25 mm sieve was eliminated as a pay factor and adjustments were made to the weights of the remaining factors to reflect the findings of this study. An implementation plan was developed and includes involvement of the specification committee, contractor quality control, training, and field testing the new specification.

 

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Winter Pothole Patching

Improved Winter Pothole Patching
This report is a summary of the findings from a literature search and survey to investigate winter pothole patching equipment and methods utilized by other state and local transportation agencies. An informal survey of nine transportation agencies was conducted to determine what types of specialized equipment were being used to perform pothole repairs. The results of the literature search and survey revealed that spray injection patching is a widely used and accepted method for pothole and related road repairs. There are three types of spray injection patching equipment: trailer type units, modified truck units and self-contained units. Four different manufacturers are currently producing this spray injection equipment in the United States. Each of the manufacturers was contacted and their equipment specifications and catalog information obtained. The equipment data is included as appendices in the report. Based on the information obtained from recent literature, other transportation agencies and equipment manufacturers, the spray injection process has been widely endorsed as an effective and efficient method for road repair. A recommendation was made for Oregon Department of Transportation Maintenance Managers to review this report and investigate using a spray injection patching unit on a trial basis for 3-4 months.
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Isotropic Reinforcing (Short Term)

Concrete Bridge Deck with Isotropic Reinforcing: Short Term Evaluation
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has used traditional truss bar layout for bridge deck reinforcement for many years. Studies by other states found the same performance using an isotropic deck grid steel reinforcement layout. The isotropic system uses less steel, which lowers the cost of the deck and reduces distress caused by rebar corrosion. Three bridges included in this study were built with isotropic reinforced decks. In the short term (two years) all the decks had some minor initial cracking. The deck on the Santiam Overflow No. 4 cracked soon after the forms were removed. This cracking could be related to the seismic activity in the area. The other two decks also cracked, but the cracks are very tight and do not appear to be through cracks. The short-term performance is as good as standard deck rebar layouts.


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Using LEDs in Traffic

Using LEDs in Traffic Signals
 
In 1993, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) began testing red light emitting diodes (LED’s) as a replacement to the incandescent lamps in vehicular and pedestrian signals. Field performance was found to be reliable and subsequently ODOT began replacing all red incandescent lamps. In 1995, an implementation program was created to introduce Oregon cities and counties to the LED lamps. The program installed 2,212 red LED lamps used in 12" balls, 12" arrows, 8" balls and pedestrian "hand" symbol. The red LED lamps reduced power consumption by 88%. Operating costs, including power and annualized lamp replacement costs, were reduced 26%. The LED lamps are warranted to last 5 years and have an estimated payback of 3.6 years. The 12" lamps, which typically have about 620 individual LED’s, continue to operate after several of the LED’s have failed -- thus making the LED lamp more reliable. The higher reliability and longer life has reduced the number of emergency calls for lamp failures.


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Three Cable Median Barrier

Three Cable Median Barrier 
 Oregon public interest peaked regarding crossover highway safety following three fatalities from a crossover accident in August of 1996. The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) conducted a review of possible barrier solutions for the interstate highway median near Salem, Oregon. The weak-post three-cable median barrier system was selected. Unfortunately, there is not much information concerning the maintenance and repair costs of the cable barrier system. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the three-cable barrier in preventing crossover accidents on Interstate 5 (I-5), Oregon Highway Number 1, and evaluates the maintenance and repair costs in order to make recommendations for future installations.
Based on the results of the study, the cable median barrier system proved to be cost-effective when compared to the concrete median barrier system and the system performed well, decreasing crossover accidents in the area. The cable median barrier system works well in medians with a minimum of 7 m width, where it is used to prevent the infrequent potentially catastrophic cross-median accidents.


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Multicriteria Prioritization

Prioritization of Mobility Improvements Using a Multicriteria Prioritization Algorithm
A prioritization process has been prepared by the University of California, Davis, for use by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) in selecting multimodal mobility improvement projects to fund, given a budget constraint. The process involves first, the evaluation of projects using a set of criteria, incorporating such factors as cost-efficiency and modal integration, and second, the processing of the evaluation scores through a ranking algorithm. The ranking algorithm presented is the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). TOPSIS has been previously implemented by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), and due to issues that arose, modifications were made to the methodology in TOPSIS that were specific to the criteria used by WSDOT.
 
Due to differing policy goals, these criteria are different from those recommended for ODOT. However, the issues that arose would apply to an ODOT implementation. TOPSIS was demonstrated using a sample set of project scores that were collected, and using several scenarios in which the evaluation criteria are weighted in different proportions, yielding unsurprising results. A process for determining final weights was demonstrated during a meeting of the Oregon Transportation Commission. Recommendations for further study are presented.
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Stormwater Facility

Management of Stormwater Facility Maintenance Residuals

The Oregon Department of Transportation is conducting a study to determine roadwaste management options. Phase 1 consisted of a thorough review of regulations and standards, roadwaste characterization, current management practices, and new technology. This report documents the finds from Phase 1, focusing on road sweepings and stormwater vactor residuals, though the findings also help to clarify proper management of other roadwaste materials. No one set of regulations was identified that covers roadwaste management. Consequently, hazardous and solid waste, water quality, cleanup, and other rules are reviewed. Roadwaste characterization evolved during the 1990s; many tests were run and results varied widely. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) tests, used at underground storage tank *UST) cleanup sites, are not appropriate for evaluation of roadwaste due to H-C bond interference from natural organic constituents. Now, carcinogenic PAHs (seven heavy petroleum compounds) and heavy metals drive evaluation of risk. Fine particles (clays and silts) are more contaminated than coarse fractions. Dissolved contaminants in vactor liquids are low; however, high contamination loadings are often adsorbed to suspended solids. Identifying and separating differing roadwastes allows more ready management while requiring less frequent analysis. Practices reviewed address hot load separation, mainstream roadwaste, and vactor waste management. Many possibilities are identified for trials; it is expected that Phase 2 (Trial Implementation) will lead to further important finds. The report recommends that trials lead to the development of Best Management Practices to support statewide plan development by ODOT in Phase 3.


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Peer Exchange

Research Management Peer Exchange 1998
ODOT hosted a Research Management Peer Exchange June 2-4, 1998.  The objective of the exchange was as follows:  to identify how the quality of research and results could be improved, determine how research results could be better implemented, and evaluate the value of research completed by other sources.
 
The report discusses issues addressed by the Peer Exchange Panel.  Aside from the targeted areas of consideration, additional action items were identified.  Items such as marketing, and contracting were also discussed.

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Modern Roundabouts

Modern Roundabouts for Oregon
This report reviews current research and practice on modern roundabouts, both in the US and other countries. The report compares the advantages and disadvantages of roundabouts, summarizes safety implications, and discusses pedestrian and bicyclist considerations. Guidance from other states on the geometric design of roundabouts is reviewed, as are studies and formulas used to evaluate roundabout performance, measuring capacity and delay. Software models for roundabouts are reviewed. The report makes recommendations for considering and using roundabouts in Oregon, as well as identifying further research needs in this area.
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Roadwaste: Issues and Options

Roadwaste: Issues and Options

The Oregon Department of Transportation is conducting a study to determine roadwaste management options. Phase 1 consisted of a thorough review of regulations and standards, roadwaste characterization, current management practices, and new technology. This report documents the finds from Phase 1, focusing on road sweepings and stormwater vactor residuals, though the findings also help to clarify proper management of other roadwaste materials. No one set of regulations was identified that covers roadwaste management. Consequently, hazardous and solid waste, water quality, cleanup, and other rules are reviewed. Roadwaste characterization evolved during the 1990s; many tests were run and results varied widely. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) tests, used at underground storage tank (UST) cleanup sites, are not appropriate for evaluation of roadwaste due to H-C bond interference from natural organic constituents. Now, carcinogenic PAHs (seven heavy petroleum compounds) and heavy metals drive evaluation of risk. Fine particles (clays and silts) are more contaminated than coarse fractions. Dissolved contaminants in vactor liquids are low; however, high contamination loadings are often adsorbed to suspended solids. Identifying and separating differing roadwastes allows more ready management while requiring less frequent analysis. Practices reviewed address hot load separation, mainstream roadwaste, and vactor waste management. Many possibilities are identified for trials; it is expected that Phase 2 (Trial Implementation) will lead to further important finds. The report recommends that trials lead to the development of Best Management Practices to support statewide plan development by ODOT in Phase 3.


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Stormwater Maintenance

 
Management of Stormwater Facility Maintenance Residuals

The Oregon Department of Transportation is conducting a study to determine roadwaste management options. Phase 1 consisted of a thorough review of regulations and standards, roadwaste characterization, current management practices, and new technology. This report documents the finds from Phase 1, focusing on road sweepings and stormwater vactor residuals, though the findings also help to clarify proper management of other roadwaste materials. No one set of regulations was identified that covers roadwaste management. Consequently, hazardous and solid waste, water quality, cleanup, and other rules are reviewed. Roadwaste characterization evolved during the 1990s; many tests were run and results varied widely. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) tests, used at underground storage tank *UST) cleanup sites, are not appropriate for evaluation of roadwaste due to H-C bond interference from natural organic constituents. Now, carcinogenic PAHs (seven heavy petroleum compounds) and heavy metals drive evaluation of risk. Fine particles (clays and silts) are more contaminated than coarse fractions. Dissolved contaminants in vactor liquids are low; however, high contamination loadings are often adsorbed to suspended solids. Identifying and separating differing roadwastes allows more ready management while requiring less frequent analysis. Practices reviewed address hot load separation, mainstream roadwaste, and vactor waste management. Many possibilities are identified for trials; it is expected that Phase 2 (Trial Implementation) will lead to further important finds. The report recommends that trials lead to the development of Best Management Practices to support statewide plan development by ODOT in Phase 3.


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Composite Materials

Strengthening Bridges Using Composite Materials

The objective of this research project is to outline methodologies for using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites to strengthen and rehabilitate reinforced concrete bridge elements.
Infrastructure deterioration and bridge strengthening techniques using FRP materials are discussed as background. Properties and classifications of different reinforcing fibers and resin matrices are provided, along with the mechanical properties of the FRP composites.
Basic concepts and design principles for composite FRP materials are introduced, and topics such as manufacturing processes, anisotropic elasticity, strength of anisotropic materials, and micro-mechanics are presented.

Techniques and concepts for strengthening concrete beams with FRP composites are discussed, as are flexural and shear strengthening design and construction methodologies. The worldwide research experience in the behavior of FRP strengthened beams under various conditions are summarized.
External reinforcement of concrete columns using FRP materials is examined. Theoretical background, factors influencing the performance of FRP wrapped columns, and various case studies are presented. Design methodologies and examples supplement the case studies for both beams and columns. Most FRP material systems available on the market today are summarized and evaluated.
Construction and durability requirements of the retrofitted systems are presented. Reliability assessment, condition evaluation methods, and factors influencing the strengthening quality are included. The various steps of the construction process, such as selection of a composite strengthening system, concrete surface preparation, and bond between FRP and concrete are summarized. Quality control, environmental durability of FRP composites, and cost effectiveness are presented.



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Eliminating Ticket Takers

Eliminating the Use of Ticket Takers
The Oregon Department of Transportation tested an automated means of collecting data from paving trucks as an alternative to the traditional method of "ticket taking". A computerized communication system was designed and built by Quality Design Systems, Inc. (QDSI) of Eagle, Idaho to track and log information about vehicles and loads. The system’s performance was adequate, except when overheated.


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Adiem II End Terminal - Construction Report

Adiem II End Terminal for Concrete Barrier - Construction Report
An ADIEM II (Advanced Dynamic Impact Extension Module) was installed on Interstate 5 near Salem, Oregon. This device was used for an end treatment because of space limitations imposed by the steep fill. A three-person crew completed installation in about two hours.
Because the installer did not have the proper lifting equipment, the installation was delayed while a heavy-duty forklift was transported to the job site. No other major problems developed.
The bases of the crushable concrete modules were not sealed with paint as effectively as the rest of the module. Moisture could penetrate the porous concrete from the bottom up. This area will be watched closely during the next three-year evaluation period. The blocks are easy to move if additional sealing is necessary.


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Fiber Optic Sensors

Fiber Optic Sensors for Infrastructure Applications
Fiber optic sensor technology offers the possibility of implementing "nervous systems" for infrastructure elements that allow high performance, cost effective health and damage assessment systems to be achieved. This is possible, largely due to synergistic developments in the fiber optic telecommunication and optoelectronics fields, where industries with multi-billion dollar research and development budgets exist. Now, essential components are becoming available with prices and performance that are improving dramatically on an annual basis. This report is an introduction to fiber optics, fiber optic sensor technology and some of the applications that make this field, which is still in its early infancy, one of the most promising new developments in infrastructure systems.

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