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SPR 783

Truck Parking: An Emerging Safety Hazard to Highway Users

Project Coordinator:
 Lyn Cornell
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Sal Hernandez
Start Date for ODOT:
 August 18, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 June 30, 2017

 

Overview:

It is nationally recognized that commercial motor vehicle operators often cannot find adequate and safe parking for rest purposes. This is especially true for Oregon, where high-use corridor rest areas are experiencing a heavy demand for truck parking, one that exceeds capacity. These rest areas are intended for short-term safety breaks, yet they are increasingly used for long-term parking. Private truck stops are also experiencing capacity shortfalls. The economic recovery and driver hour-of-service regulations have recently contributed to the rising demand. Winter weather conditions are another factor that adds to the demand of truck parking facilities. Recent studies performed by Pahukula and Hernandez (2014) and Islam and Hernandez (2013) have shown factors related to weather and fatigue increase the injury severity level potential of commercial motor vehicle involved crashes.
 
Because of the truck parking shortages and limits on stays in public rest areas (Oregon Administrative Rule 734-030-0010 allows a vehicle to remain in a rest area for up to 12 hours in a 24-hour period), commercial motor vehicle operators may be contributing to unsafe situations by driving without a needed short break and/or by parking on roadway access ramps, shoulders, at highway interchanges and on facilities running through cities and towns. Oregon law, ORS 811.550 prohibits parking on a throughway, yet enforcement of illegal truck parking has been low priority for Oregon State Police and other Oregon law enforcement officers. This problem is expected to become an increasing hazard as freight movement by truck is forecast to increase about 70% (tonnage) by year 2035.
 

 

Objectives:

The shortage of truck parking has been identified as an issue across the state of Oregon as indicated by the recent solicitation of interest by ODOT for a Biggs Junction truck parking facility public/private partnership opportunity. This research will focus on Biggs Junction at I-84 and the entire US 97 route through Oregon in order to contain project scope, but the methodology could be applied to other Oregon Freight Corridors. Therefore, to adequately assess commercial vehicle parking needs and analyze safety on high-use corridors in the State, the research objectives are:
1. Review and summarize what other states are doing to address the truck parking shortage and related safety implications
 
2. Identify data available and methods to measure the extent of the problem (e.g., identifying truck parking supply and demand)
3. Gather opinions of commercial motor vehicle operators and commercial truck stop operators with regards to parking shortages and parking location decisions
 
4. Estimate future demand for truck parking based on freight forecasts prepared in the OFP, identify priority locations where truck parking is an issue (e.g., rest stops, exit ramps, shoulder of the road) or likely to become an issue

5. Identify safety impacts of potential truck parking enhancements

 

​​Truck Parking: An Emerging Safety Hazard to Highway Users Work Plan

 

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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SPR 784

Development of Titanium Seismic Retrofits for Deficient Concrete Columns

Project Coordinator:
 Matthew Mabey
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Chris Higgins
Start Date for ODOT:
 December 1, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 January 31, 2018

 

Overview:

Hundreds of bridges in the Oregon bridge inventory are supported on seismically deficient reinforced concrete columns. Reinforced concrete (RC) columns designed prior to the mid-1970’s have details which make them susceptible to premature failure during earthquakes. In particular, lap splices and widely spaced transverse reinforcement are insufficient to develop and maintain strength under repeated loading. Splices are typically located just above the footing elevation in hinge regions where there is significant ductility demand. Transverse reinforcement is often too widely spaced and insufficient to adequately confine the core area, prevent buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement within the flexural hinge region, and provide sufficient shear strength. These deficiencies have led engineers and researchers to develop different retrofitting methodologies to improve their seismic performance.
This research will evaluate new retrofit methods are proposed which employ a novel use of continuous spirals of a high-strength titanium alloy bars, supplemental longitudinal titanium alloy bars, and are combined with low shrinkage concrete or grout to externally protect nonductile rectangular RC columns.
 

Objectives:

A research program is proposed to develop seismic retrofits for nonductile rectangular RC columns using high-strength titanium alloy bars. The objectives of the proposed research project are to:


· Establish the structural effectiveness of titanium alloy bars for seismic retrofitting RC columns
· Determine the economic feasibility of the retrofit methods
· Develop analytical models to describe the behavior and performance of retrofitted nonductile RC columns
· Develop design methods that can be used to achieve desired seismic performance for nonductile RC columns

Development of Titanium Seismic Retrofits for Deficient Concrete Columns Work Plan

 

QUARTER REPORTS:

 FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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SPR 785

Adjusting Asphalt Mixes for Increased Durability and Implementation of a Tester to Evaluate Fatigue Cracking of Asphalt Concrete

Project Coordinator:
 Norris Shippen
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Erdem Coleri
Start Date for ODOT:
 October 1,2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 June 30, 2017

 

Overview:

Asphalt concrete fatigue cracking has been accepted to be a major distress mode in Oregon. ODOT’s Pavement Management system has shown that mixes placed in the last 20 years have had a tendency to develop premature cracking after 6 to 8 years of service life before reaching the structural design life of 15 years. The widespread nature of this distress would suggest that it is an issue with the way mix is designed and produced and not a specific project related problem. Thus, current test methods and design guidelines should be modified and improved to be able to develop more durable asphalt mixtures with longer service lives. In order to determine the most feasible test method and analysis protocol to be used in district and contractor laboratories in Oregon, accuracy, precision, time, cost, efficiency, and practicality of different cracking tests should be evaluated.

Objectives:

This research would have five major objectives: i) compare the results of direct tension fatigue (DT), indirect tensile (IDT), semi-circular bending (SCB), and beam fatigue tests using various energy and fatigue life parameters to determine how well they agree; ii) investigate the effectiveness of each test for identifying the impact of polymer modification, recycled asphalt content, compaction level, aggregate properties, and binder contents on mixture cracking performance; iii) investigate the effectiveness of each test in predicting in-situ cracking performance; iv) evaluate the tests for time, cost, efficiency, complexity, and practicality for use in district and contractor laboratories in Oregon; and v) investigate the effects of aggregate properties (toughness, abrasion resistance, durability, gradation, % of P200, etc.), volumetrics (Va, VMA, VFA, Pbe/P200), binder content, air void content and binder grade on durability to provide recommendations to the Contractor Mix Design Guidelines. 

Adjusting Asphalt Mixes for Increased Durability and Implementation of a Tester to Evaluate Fatigue Cracking of Asphalt Concrete Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS

 FY 16
 FY 17
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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SPR 786

Enhancing Landslide Inventorying, LiDAR Hazard Assessment and Asset Management

Project Coordinator:
Kira Glover-Cutter 
Research Agency:
Oregon State University/Oregon Dept. of Geology and Mineral Industries 
Principal Investigator:
Ben Leshchinsky/Michael Olsen/William Burns
Start Date for ODOT:
 September 2, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 January 30, 2018

 

Overview:

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires states to inspect and inventory federal-aid highway system bridges every two years. These bridge inspections are important for assessing the safety of a bridge and are done by qualified structural inspectors, typically at an arm’s length from the inspection point(s). However, as stated in the FHWA Bridge Inspector’s Reference Manual, “[b]ridge inspection is inherently dangerous.” In order to access and view necessary bridge elements, inspectors are often required to stand in vehicles that are costly to mobilize and at times dangerous, including platform trucks, bucket trucks, or under-bridge inspection vehicles. Some inspections require extensive climbing or use of rescue boats. In addition to the danger to the inspector and vehicle operator, road users also face danger as traffic lanes on bridges are closed or reduced during inspections. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology for use in visual structural inspections. This research addresses ODOT’s core values: enhancing transportation and employee safety, and improving the reliability of Oregon’s transportation system. UAV technology has great potential to provide a cost-effective and safe method for remotely performing preliminary visual inspections.  

Objectives:

The overall goal of this research is to determine the capabilities and limitations of performing structural inspections with UAVs. In addition to investigating bridges, the research team will also evaluate the performance of UAVs in inspecting wireless communication towers. Similar to bridges, communication towers also need to be routinely inspected, requiring extensive climbing, bucket trucks, and ropes and harnesses. Because the inspection of bridges and communication towers present similar safety concerns, and because UAVs could potentially reduce their inspection dangers and costs, both types of structures will be investigated. This research seeks to:
 
• Evaluate the performance of UAV-based methods for inspecting bridges and communication towers
• Identify which ODOT inspection requirements can and cannot be satisfied with a UAV inspection.

• Provide a cost-benefit analysis of performing UAV inspections for communication towers and bridges.

• Develop procedures/guidelines for how to safely and effectively perform UAV inspections of bridges and communication towers. These guidelines will include recommendations on any necessary UAV-related equipment and image processing software.

 

Enhancing Landslide Inventorying, LiDAR Hazard Assessment and Asset Management Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

  

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SPR 787

Eyes in the Sky: Bridge Inspections with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Project Coordinator:
 Xiugang (Joe) Li
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Daniel Gillins/Christopher Parrish
Start Date for ODOT:
 October 1, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 January 30, 2018

 

Overview:

UAVs are capable of flying a pre-loaded path and can carry digital cameras and other sensors. They are excellent for accessing spots that are dangerous or hard to reach by humans without the use of specialized climbing equipment.  During flights, operators can view live video from the camera to determine areas that may need detailed inspection. Digital photographs from onboard cameras can be processed, mosaicked, georeferenced, and converted into 3D  point clouds for analyses.
 
Because of the rapid emergence of UAV-related technology in recent years, there is growing interest in the feasibility of inspecting structures with UAVs. For example, Hallerman and Morgenthal (2013) concluded that UAVs can be effective for inspecting industrial chimneys and historical buildings. Sa et al. (2015) investigated the use of a UAV for inspecting poles. Ellenberg et al. (2014), and Eschmann et al. (2013) showed that UAV imagery can be used to detect cracks and other defects in structural elements.
 
Because of low flight costs, UAVs can also be flown regularly to monitor ground and structural changes. For instance, Hallerman et al. (2014) showed that imagery from a UAV can be used to monitor deformations along dams and arth retaining walls.
 
Although some very recent work has been published on the feasibility of using UAVs for some structural inspections, much more work is needed if DOTs intend to implement UAVs in their bridge inspection programs. First, this project aims to test and evaluate the effectiveness of inspecting bridges (and, as discussed below, wireless communication towers) with UAVs. To date, no peer-reviewed papers have been found on inspecting these types of structures with UAVs. Second, a cost-benefit analysis will be provided on using UAVs for inspecting these structures as compared with conventional inspection methods. Third, this project will give practical recommendations on how to best and safely perform UAV inspections.Recommendations will include how to best plan a flight mission and set the camera acquisition parameters.
 

Objectives:

The overall goal of this research is to determine the capabilities and limitations of performing structural inspections with UAVs. In addition to investigating bridges, the research team will also evaluate the performance of UAVs in inspecting wireless communication towers. Similar to bridges, communication towers also need to be routinely inspected, requiring extensive climbing, bucket trucks, and ropes and harnesses. Because the inspection of bridges and communication towers present similar safety concerns, and because UAVs could potentially reduce their inspection dangers and costs, both types of structures will be investigated. This research seeks to:
 
· Evaluate the performance of UAV-based methods for inspecting bridges and communication towers 71
· Identify which ODOT inspection requirements can and cannot be satisfied with a UAV inspection.
· Provide a cost-benefit analysis of performing UAV inspections for communication towers and bridges.
· Develop procedures/guidelines for how to safely and effectively perform UAV inspections of bridges and communication towers. These guidelines will include recommendations on any necessary UAV-related equipment and image processing software.

  

Eyes in the Sky: Bridge Inspections with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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SPR 788

Performance-Based Planning and Decision Making - Understanding Mode Choices

Project Coordinator:
 Tony Knudson
Research Agency:
 Portland State University
Principal Investigator:
 Liming Wang/Jennifer Dill
Start Date for ODOT:
 October 1, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 February 28, 2017

 

Overview:

Performance-based planning helps us to understand the potential impacts of decisions we make, supporting cost-effective investments and policy choices that we know can help us achieve our goals.In addition, it can enable monitoring of progress and facilitate needed adjustments, help us to communicate to the public, and assist us with meeting federal regulations and the intent of MAP21.ODOT has successfully developed a process for and applied performance-based planning in statewide and regional scenario planning efforts. These efforts have led to significant interest by regions and locals to integrate the process and tool ODOT developed into other planning and decision-making efforts. Additionally, ODOT planning is using the tool to help quantify modal and topic plan visions and policies and better communicate the anticipated benefits in ways seeming to resonate well with stakeholders and elected officials. As popularity for using the tool and process grow, there is recognition that a deeper understanding is needed to determine how mode choices and mode share may be impacted by policy and investment decisions. This is particularly important when starting to apply the tool in a broader base of planning and decision-making processes to truly understand what may be the best decisions for the entire transportation system (multimodal and intermodal).
 
Research is needed to understand how traveler’s mode choices may change in response to different policy and investment decisions. As an example, we have a good sense of how household vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is likely to change in response to policies like pricing, but we do not currently have the ability to estimate what effect that might have on travel by other modes, and how household mobility/accessibility might be affected. Placing ODOTs performance-based planning process in a multimodal context would enable ODOT, regions, and locals to cost-effectively deliver a transportation system that best achieves respective goals and to integrate what is learned from the research into existing tools.

 

Objectives:

This project will research the key drivers of multi-modal analysis, as they relate to individual households, annual household travel, household budgets and price sensitivity.The research will explore travel survey (household and transit) and consumer expenditure data.The general research findings will support planning questions on these topics, and will bolster ODOT, region, and local analysis capabilities specifically by implementing a module that can be plugged into existing tools (specifically the Regional Strategic Planning Model – RSPM).

  

Performance-Based Planning and Decision Making - Understanding Mode Choices Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 FY 17
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

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SPR 789

Improved Safety and Efficiency of Protected/Permitted Right Turns in Oregon

Project Coordinator:
 Mark Joerger
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University/Portland State   University
Principal Investigator:
 David Hurwitz/Chris Monsere
Start Date for ODOT:
 September 8, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 August 31, 2017

 

Overview:

The design of phasing schemes at signalized intersections are complex multifaceted transportation engineering problems. Right-turn operations place a significant challenge to engineers attempting to develop optimal phasing solutions for safety and efficiency. There is a surprising absence of specific guidance at the national and state level on how phasing alternatives should be selected, and how they compare in terms of operational and safety performance. Available documents such as the Traffic Signal Timing Manual (FHWA, 2008) or the ODOT Traffic Signal Policy and Guidelines (ODOT, 2013) are excellent resources, but critical questions remain with regard to what in-situ conditions: turning volumes (vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians), vehicle classifications, lane configurations (single receiving lane for both right turns and conflicting lefts), and gap profiles warrant protected/permitted right turns.Turning vehicles are the primary collision risk for non-motorized users and when these turning movements need to be controlled directly, proper driver response to traffic control is critical.
 
The challenge of designing the phasing schemes for protected/permitted right turns in Oregon has been widely identified by local traffic signal experts, presenting an opportunity for a research-based solution. Staff members from ODOT, Washington County, Clackamas County, the City of Salem, and several other agencies have been participating in an ad hoc collaboration to identify and document issues, and have determined that the gaps in the existing knowledge necessitate new research. This need has intensified with the recent allowance of the Flashing Yellow Arrow (FYA) to indicate a permitted right turn (MUTCD, 2009). While traffic engineers have a good understanding of driver comprehension and response to the circular green ball or a solid green arrow for right turning movements, significant questions remain regarding the FYA for right turn movements, as well as driver responses to the solid red arrow in Oregon.

 

Objectives:

The goal of the research is to develop an understanding of the safety and operational implications of using the FYA to indicate a permitted right turn, and to provide general guidance as to when Protected/Permitted Right Turns PPRT) phasing should be used to maximize the safety of nonmotorized road users and the overall efficiency of ODOT’s signalized intersections.

Improved Safety and Efficiency of Protected/Permitted Right Turns in Oregon Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

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SPR 790

Work Zone Intrusion Alert Technologies: Assessment and Practical Guidance

Project Coordinator:
 Jon Lazarus
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 John Gambatese
Start Date for ODOT:
 July 27, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 March 31, 2017

 

Overview:

Roadway construction and maintenance operations commonly require workers to conduct their work in close proximity to ongoing traffic. Short-term work zones (WZs) on high speed roads often involve working adjacent to passing vehicles separated by only a line of traffic markers. This worksite condition presents significant safety risk for both the workers and passing motorists. Inattentive or speeding drivers, careless workers, misplaced drums, and hazardousroadway conditions can lead to crashes and ultimately WZ injuries and fatalities. Other factors that can cause an increase in WZ crashes include: increase in nighttime work; lack of consistency of WZs; distracted drivers; and increase in vehicle miles travelled.
 
New technologies are publicly available that alert workers of work area intrusions. Prior work zone safety studies conducted by ODOT did not target work area intrusions and the technologies available to warn of intrusions. Literature is available from the device manufacturers that describes the specifications of each individual technology; however no studies have been found that provide a comprehensive review and comparison of the available technologies and present recommendations for their use in practice. Objective evaluation is needed that addresses the capabilities and effectiveness of the technologies, ease of use, viable application conditions (e.g., short-term/long-term work zone; stationary/mobile operation; and nighttime/daytime shift), and current cost and feasibility of implementation.

 

Objectives:

The goal of the proposed research study is to provide ODOT traffic control, construction, and maintenance staff with guidance on the use of intrusion alert systems in work zones. To meet this goal, the research will include the following tasks:
 
· Document the work zone intrusion alert technologies and practices that are currently available and being developed.
· Select and pilot test a sample of intrusion alert technologies for evaluation and testing in ODOT work zones.
· Evaluate each of the selected technologies in active ODOT construction and/or maintenance work zones.
· Prepare documentation for ODOT that describe the capabilities and cost effectiveness of each technology evaluated.
· Provide recommendations for use of the technologies on future ODOT construction and maintenance work zones.

 

Work Zone Intrusion Alert Technologies: Assessment and Practical Guidance Work Plans

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

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SPR 791

Use of Additional Lighting for Traffic Control and Speed Reduction in Work Zones

Project Coordinator:
 Jon Lazarus
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 John Gambatese
Start Date for ODOT:
 September 4, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 June 30, 2017

 

Overview:

Much of the construction work that occurs on high-speed roadways takes place at night, exposing workers to hazards that are not present or as great during the daytime (e.g., impaired drivers, lack of sufficient lighting, and icy conditions at night). As a result, special measures are taken during nighttime work to protect workers and motorists in work zones, including workers wearing reflective clothing, flaggers using lighted STOP/SLOW paddles, and the use of illuminated signs for traffic control. Working at night also requires illuminating the work area. Construction crews typically employ light towers, balloon lights, or other lighting systems in order to see and conduct their work. The actual type of lighting system used depends on various factors such as the amount of light needed and the nature of the work operation (e.g., stationary or mobile, and short- or long-term). FHWA and OSHA publish standards for the minimum and recommended lighting in work areas.
 
The potentially positive impact that work area lighting can have on vehicle speeds is promising for safety in other areas of a work zone. A work zone may extend for several miles. Adding lighting to areas where the paver and typical work area lighting are currently not present may be a low cost means of making motorists more aware of workers on the roadway, reducing vehicle speeds throughout the work zone, and further protecting workers on the roadway.

 

Objectives:

The proposed research study aims to: (1) determine whether additional lighting added throughout a work zone can benefit work zone safety; and (2) develop recommended practices for strategic use of lighting systems in work zones to help control and reduce vehicle speeds. The following specific objectives are proposed for the study:
 
· Document current work area lighting systems and practices in preservation project work zones.
· Determine the typical work patterns and activities in preservation project operations.
· Identify potential strategies for additional illumination of work zones using available lighting systems.
· Select and test one or more lighting strategies in an actual work zone to assess the impacts of the lighting on vehicle speeds, worker safety, contractor operations, and work performance.
· Develop recommendations for ODOT for additional work zone lighting to enhance work zone safety.

 

Use of Additional Lighting for Traffic Control and Speed Reduction in Work Zones Work Plan

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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SPR 792

Construction of Efficient, Cost-Effective and Sustainable Maintenance Facilities

Project Coordinator:
 Lyn Cornell
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Jason Ideker/Karl Haapala
Start Date for ODOT:
 October 26, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 August 30, 2017

 

Overview:

There are approximately 89 maintenance stations within ODOT, and a large assortment of other sheds, storage, and support buildings.Many of these maintenance stations are old, beyond their life expectancy, inefficient, or functionally obsolete (unable to accommodate larger-size, modern equipment). There is an urgent need to systematically replace these buildings to support the agency maintenance mission.A typical maintenance station can cost up to $8-$9 million, representing a significant capital cost burden over the next several years.A new maintenance station recently constructed in Sisters became the first in Oregon to incorporate renewable energy – in the form of geothermal heating and solar water heating.Even more sustainable and cost-effective solutions could have potentially been accomplished by utilizing high performance design practices, sustainably produced materials, increased insulation, more efficient lighting, water-saving techniques, waste reductions, etc.1-4The goal of this research is to document and provide such information for ODOT decision makers to make the most efficient use of the funding for maintenance station buildings.

Objective:

The main goal of this research project is to produce guidance that includes options for enabling ODOT to construct high performance maintenance facilities that will:increase operational functionality, reduce environmental impact, increase energy efficiency, and lower life cycle costs.

Construction of Efficient, Cost-Effective and Sustainable Maintenance Facilities Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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SPR 793

Safety Assessment of Freeway Active Traffic Management by Exploring the Relationship between Safety, Congestion and Weather

Project Coordinator:
 Tony Knudson
Research Agency:
 Oregon Department of Transportation
Principal Investigator:
 Xiugang (Joe) Li
Start Date for ODOT:
 
Completion Date for ODOT:
 September 30, 2018

 

Overview:

The goal of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of ATMS featuring VAS components (similar to being installed on OR 217 (urban) and US 26/OR 35 (rural/mountain)) specifically for real-time safety improvements. The real-time safety evaluations will provide the groundwork for future implementations of ATMS and VAS systems across the state.

Objectives:

· .Identify corridors of interest with ATMS and control corridors without ATMS.
· Explore sources of historical crash data for the corridors.
· Merge crash data with the traffic and weather information being archived for the corridors.
· Create a database and procedure for merging of future crash data with traffic and weather information.
· Create a prototype pilot crash risk assessment framework for selected freeway corridors to assess the real-time safety.
· Perform quantitative real-time safety evaluations of existing ATM deployments (e.g., OR 217, I-5, I-405 or US 26/OR 35 if applicable).
· Provide final results, lessons learned, guidance and recommendations for future implementations.

Improving Safety, Mobility, and Reliability by Exploring the Relationship between Freeway Congestion and Safety Work Plan

QUARTERLY REPORTS:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  

 

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SPR 794

Multi-Modal Intersections: Resolving Conflicts Between Trains, Motor Vehicles, Bicyclists and Pedestrians

Project Coordinator:
 Xiugang (Joe) Li
Research Agency:
 University of Washington
Principle Investigator:
 Anne Goodchild
Start Date for ODOT:
 December 29, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 June 30, 2017

 

OVERVIEW:

Increased cycling rates, rail shipments, and the establishment of multi-use paths has led to numerous complex and unsafe intersections where road, rail, and multiuse paths intersect. These intersections present safety hazards and must be addressed.

OBJECTIVES:

This project will fill the gap identified by providing background, information, and guidance for infrastructure designers, planners, and interested parties, when faced with complex and problematic intersection design. To do so, we will identify a set of at least 5 case study locations in Oregon. For each location considered, we will, through field case studies, seek to understand driver and trail user behavior. We will develop a methodology for how complex intersections are to be evaluated and propose improvements. This will allow users to identify, for example, the best location for a crosswalk in relationship to railroad tracks, and the most effective traffic control devices for each location. In addition to presenting recommended solutions for the 5 case studies, the project will produce a methodology for evaluating solutions to complex intersections more broadly.

 

Multi-Modal Intersections: Resolving Conflicts Between Trains, Motor Vehicles, Bicyclists and Pedestrians Work Plan

Quarterly Reports:

 FY16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   

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SPR 796

Preventing the Remobilization of Captured Metals in Stormwater Treatment Systems

Project Coordinator:
 Kira Glover-Cutter
Research Agency:
 
Principle Investigator:
 
Start Date for ODOT:
 
Completion Date for ODOT:
 

 

OVERVIEW:

The removal of heavy metals from highway stormwater runoff is paramount due to their significant impact on aqueous health and water quality in receiving waters and the fact that highway runoff contributes up to 75% of the heavy metal load to impaired waterways, primarily in the form of copper and zinc.ODOT has designed and implemented many stormwater treatment systems which capture heavy metals, including the I-205 stormwater treatment system.
 
Due to its subsurface design, it is believed that the heavy metal removal mechanisms of the I-205 stormwater treatment system are dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB).SRB precipitate heavy metals out of solution via ulfidation (the creation of insoluble metal-sulfide complexes) under anaerobic conditions.Conditions in the system are kept anaerobic by the presence of dissolved organic carbon which is oxidize to CO2 by heterotrophic bacteria which consume the dissolved oxygen (DO) that is present.However, conditions may turn aerobic during large storm events that deliver more DO to the system than can be consumed by the heterotrophic bacteria.Under these aerobic conditions, previously removed metals may become mobile again when chemolithotrophic bacteria oxidize the heavy metal-sulfide complexes back to soluble metals.In addition to DO, the rate of metal sulfidation is governed by the organic carbon, nutrients, and sulfate concentrations, the presence of deicer salts as well as the pH and redox conditions of the system.
 
Thus, the effectiveness of the I-205 stormwater treatment system (and similar systems) to remove and retain heavy metals will be greatly influenced by a wide variety of environmental parameters (e.g. DO, pH, organic carbon, sulfate and nutrient concentrations) and field conditions (e.g. hydraulic loading rate, residence time and field capacity).In order for ODOT to most effectively design, operate and maintain their stormwater treatment systems to maximize heavy metal capture and minimize metal release, it is critical to thoroughly understand the microbial-based heavy metal removal/remobilization mechanisms occurring in these systems and how they are influenced by environmental parameters and field conditions.

 

OBJECTIVES:

Utilizing ODOT’s I-205 stormwater treatment installation as a model system, this proposed work will: (1) identify the mechanism(s) by which heavy metals are removed/remobilized, (2) characterize how environmental and treatment system parameters influence heavy metal removal/remobilization rates and (3) validate the mechanisms and parameters at the fieldscale. To complete these objectives, lab-scale and field-scale experiments will be conducted.These experimental studies will be reinforced using computer modeling.

 

Preventing the Remobilization of Captured Metals in Stormwater Treatment Systems

Quarterly Report:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

  

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SPR 797

Binder-Grade Bumping and High Binder Content to Improve Performance of RAP-RAS Mixtures

Project Coordinator:
 Norris Shippen
Research Agency:
 Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:
 Erdem Coleri
Start Date for ODOT:
 November 16, 2015
Completion Date for ODOT:
 June 30, 2017

 

OVERVIEW:

General reduction in pavement program funding levels over the past decade and the possible consequent increase in pavement road roughness within the next couple years created a need for low cost yet effective alternative ways to rehabilitate, preserve and maintain roadway network in Oregon.Recycling highway construction materials and minimizing the use of virgin materials can reduce the pavement life cycle costs, improve highway network condition, conserve natural resources, and protect the environment. Although the recycling of asphalt pavements is beneficial in most cases by reducing the need for virgin materials and construction costs, asphalt pavements with high recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingle (RAS) contents should be carefully designed to avoid premature cracking (West et al., 2013, NCHRP 752). The use of binder-grade bumping and high virgin binder content were determined to be effective in improving cracking performance. Increased crack resistance allows the use of higher RAP/RAS contents. While these two strategies generally increase the cost of virgin binder used in the asphalt mixture, increased RAP/RAS content and improved RAP/RAS performance will reduce the overall life-cycle cost of recycled asphalt concrete material used in construction. Mechanistic-empirical (ME) pavement design methods and aboratory testing need to be combined with different modeling methods to investigate the performance benefits of using binder-grade bumping and high binder content in RAP/RAS mixtures.

OBJECTIVE:

i) identify the effects of binder-grade bumping and higher binder content on RAP/RAS performance;ii) determine the impact of these alternatives on increasing RAP/RAS contents; iii) evaluate the impact of higher RAP/RAS contents on asphalt mixture compaction; iv) evaluate the effect of blending on mixture performance; and v) investigate the impact of RAP/RAS content, virgin binder grade, and binder content on in-situ cracking performance.

Binder-Grade Bumping and High Binder Content to Improve Performance of RAP-RAS Mixtures Work Plan

 Quarterly Report:

 FY 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

  

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