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Pavement Maintenance Program

Background

This document presents Aeronautics' recommended pavement maintenance program. This program, when funded, will protect Oregon's airport investments by preserving airport pavement, consistent with the goals of the 1999 Oregon Aviation Plan. The economics are compelling. Preventative maintenance at airports extends the life of pavement by many years and saves money. Oregon airports have a large and growing backlog of pavement needs. 
 
For many airports there is no way to fund pavement maintenance and it is therefore deferred. Repeated deferral of maintenance results in costly rehabilitation and reconstruction projects. The program detailed below addresses this problem and determines program funding, eligibility, and management/administrative procedures. 
 
The first two years of projects and the methodology and assumptions behind the model which determines pavement maintenance needs are presented as appendices. 
 

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Program Summary

A state-funded aid program to assist airports in undertaking pavement preventative maintenance is needed for the following reasons:
 
·        To address stop gap maintenance projects for safety reasons.
·        There is limited or no funding available at many smaller airports to address pavement maintenance.
·        Pavement preventative maintenance is the most cost-effective means to helping preserve the system's airport pavements.
 
A.       Initial Program Funding
 
The program will be funded by increasing the aviation gas tax by 3 cents in the first year (FY 1999) and 3 cents in the second year (FY 2000), and increasing the jet fuel tax ½ cent in the first year.
Total new revenues are forecast to be $1.9 million in the 1999-2001 biennium and $2.6 million in the 2001-2003 biennium. New revenues will be dedicated to the statewide airport pavement maintenance program.
Airport sponsors receiving program funds will be required to agree to keep the airport open for a minimum of ten years.
 
B.       Type of Work to be Funded
 
The program will fund non-Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) eligible pavement preventative maintenance projects, including crack sealing, patching and fog seals.
 
1.         Needs-Based Prioritization Approach
The optimal time to perform pavement maintenance treatments is determined by use of a pavement condition database, which contains most of the state's airports. The maintenance program will prioritize stop gap projects first, and preventative maintenance second. Stop gap projects address immediate needs for patching and filling to address potentially unsafe conditions. Preventative maintenance includes patching and crack sealing for localized repair along with global fog seal treatments. These extend pavement life and are a cost effective type of project.
Airport pavement maintenance projects will be prioritized based on the type of facility. The facility priorities are: primary runway, primary taxiway, secondary runway, primary apron, secondary taxiway, and other secondary facilities.
 
2.         Project Eligibility Criteria
The following criteria will be considered in determining project eligibility and funding the pavement maintenance projects:
·        Pavement Condition Index (PCI) data must be compatible with the state's database.
·        Project is a technically warranted need based on pavement condition.
·        Airport is in the core system of airports identified by the 1999 Oregon Aviation Plan.
·        The need is not met through other projects committed in the federal Airport Improvement Program.
·        Aggregated project costs must exceed $1,000 at a given airport to warrant mobilization in a particular year.
·        Airport sponsor must commit local match for the project.
·        The sponsor establish a documented pavement maintenance program.
·        The sponsor and/or controlling jurisdiction has established airport overlay zoning in place.
 

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Program Management

This section presents program management recommendations in the areas of airport local match, contracting out the maintenance work, and scheduling and administration of the work program.
 
A.       Local Match
The local match should reflect the principles of ability to pay plus administrative simplicity. The Oregon Aviation Plan's analysis of revenue showed that, based on the plan's categorization of airports, Category 1 (commercial) and Category 2 (business) airports have significantly more revenue to address capital needs than those general aviation airports in Categories 3, 4 and 5. Further, within Category 1 revenues are significantly greater for the primary airports (Portland International, Medford, Eugene, Redmond, Klamath Falls, North Bend and Pendleton) than for the non-primary airports (Astoria and Newport). In formulating a recommended local match, a tiered approach is recommended given the differing ability to pay of the different airport categories.
 
Exhibit I

Category
Description
Recommended Local Match
1a
Commercial Primary Airports
50 percent
1b
Other Non-primary Commercial
35 percent
2
Business
25 percent
3
Regional
10 percent
4
Community
10 percent
5
Low Volume
10 percent
All Non-NPIAS
Community and Low Volume
5 percent
 
Non-NPIAS airports are not eligible for federal Airport Improvement Program grants and have amongst the lowest ability to pay. Therefore a reduced match is recommended for these airports.
 
B.       Contracting Out the Work
Aeronautics will use existing multi-year contracts with consultant engineers to develop bid documents and specifications and to perform inspections. The maintenance projects will either be let under one contract statewide or multiple contracts on a regional basis. Aeronautics will review different contracting options in order to obtain the lowest bid and minimize administration costs. If there are multiple projects in a given year at an airport, they will be completed at one time to improve efficiency.
 
A one-time agreement between Aeronautics and airport sponsors will allow the state to perform maintenance work. Airport operators will be required to maintain records of pavement maintenance.
 
C.       Scheduling and Administration of the Work Program
It is recommended that the program be a two-year program with construction work let annually. There will be annual updates based on actual implementation of eligible projects. The administration steps are summarized below.
Step 1: Identify Technically Eligible Projects Use MicroPAVER to establish list of technically eligible projects.
Step 2: Notify Sponsors of Projects. Notify airports of their technically eligible projects.
Step 3: Review Projects for Eligibility. Evaluate eligibility of project applications against eligibility criteria.
Step 4: Prepare Engineer's Estimates and Bid Documents. Aeronautics will use on-call consultant engineers to develop plan specifications and estimates for the projects that meet eligibility requirements.
Step 5: Advertise and Let Projects. Pavement maintenance contracts will be advertised and let according to Oregon statutory requirements for construction contracts.
Step 6: Provide Contract Administration and Quality Assurance. Aeronautics will ensure that maintenance projects conform to specifications and administer contract payments.
 
D.       Cash Management
Aeronautics will forecast the timing of program revenues from the fuel tax increases against program expenditures based on project letting and work schedules. This will be necessary in the first and future years to ensure that the timing and amount of program revenues are sufficient to fund the program.
               

 

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Appendix A

Appendix A
MicroPAVER Methodology and Assumptions
A two-year project selection was undertaken with the Aeronautics Division's computerized pavement maintenance management program (MicroPAVER), which prioritizes projects based on the Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The Aeronautics Division evaluates pavements at the non air-carrier paved airports on a three-year cycle under an on-going FAA grant program.
The following methodology and assumptions were used in developing the maintenance program for the Oregon airport system.
 
1.      Only publicly owned airports were evaluated, but both NPIAS and Non-NPIAS airports were included. Category assignment for each airport was based on those developed for the Aviation System Plan by the ODOT Aeronautics Division.
 
2.      Critical PCI values were used based on Oregon-specific deterioration curves.  There is a significant increase in the rate of pavement condition deterioration and high preventative maintenance costs as PCI falls below the critical PCI range. These critical PCI values are as follows:
 

 
Categories 1 & 2
Runways = 65
Taxiways = 60
Aprons = 50
 
          Categories 3 & 4           
Runways = 60
Taxiways = 55
Aprons = 50
 
Category 5
Runways = 55
Taxiways = 50
Aprons = 45
 
 
3.      A prioritization table was used to identify which "projects" would be funded if limited funds were available. An unlimited budget scenario and a $1,000,000/year budget scenario was run.  Note that MicroPAVER evaluates those pavements below the critical PCI value separately from those above the critical PCI value.  For the most part MicroPAVER will allocate funds to fixing those pavements below the critical PCI value before it allocates funds to fixing those pavements above the critical PCI value. 
 
4.      Two maintenance and repair (M&R) policies were developed for use during the evaluation.  These policies identify the "maintenance" activities to be completed.  For pavements below the critical PCI only those defects that are perceived to result in a potentially unsafe operating condition were fixed.  This policy is called "Stop Gap".  The second policy, called "Preventive", was applied to pavements above the critical PCI.  This policy was applied to the defects that can reasonably be fixed using localized maintenance activities.  It was a requirement of this project that only those activities that were not eligible for FAA funding be included (patching and crack sealing for localized repair).  The FAA also indicated that fog seals are ineligible.  Fog seals are considered in MicroPAVER as a global maintenance treatment.  These global maintenance treatments are applied on a user-specified interval.  The interval used was every seven years. The following costs for the maintenance activities evaluated were used during this project:
 
Activity
Cost
Deep AC Patching
$4.55/sf
Shallow AC Patching
$3.25/sf
Full Depth PCC Patching
$8.45/sf
Partial Depth PCC Patching
$5.85/sf
Leveling AC Patching
$2.60/sf
Patching w/ Coal Tar Seal
$1.48/sf
PCC Crack Sealing
$1.95/lineal foot
AC Crack Sealing
$1.30/lineal foot
Fog Seal
$0.03/sf
 
5.      It was assumed during the 5-year analysis period used for this analysis that a pavement section would only receive stop gap maintenance and preventive maintenance once during that time. However, there is one exception and that is that at the time of a fog seal application, preventive maintenance would be completed. MicroPAVER uses actual distress data to calculate the first year's maintenance needs, and then uses a $/sf cost to calculate needs in the out years. 
 



There has been no increase in the state avgas tax since 1977, and no change in the jet fuel tax since 1959.
 
MicroPAVER is the pavement management system which contains most of the state's airports. It is used to determine technical need for pavement maintenance.
NPAIS is the acronym for National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems and refers to those airports that meet specific federal criteria in terms of activity levels and location. Such airports are eligible for grants through the FAA's Airport Improvement Program (AIP).
Note that fog seals are applied across an entire pavement section, not just in localized areas.
These costs are basic costs with a 30% add-on for contingencies and engineering.
 

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Appendix B

                                                                              Process

3-Year Evaluation Cycle
7-Year Fog Seal Cycle
12-15 Year Life of Thin Overlay


Once airports have been selected for work based on PCI, a more in-depth computer run will be completed which will include all gross global work anticipated in the future at each airport.

*      This will assist the engineer to ensure nothing is overlooked in planning the work,
         i.e.,

*      If a slurry or thin overlay is scheduled out two years in the future - crack sealing
        can be completed as part of regional crack sealing bid and completed in advance
        of slurry seal.


1)     ALP will be used as site plan to assist in determining crack sealing.

2)     PCI, Inc. will include either a video or more extensive photos to assist engineer in
        estimating project.

3)     Engineer to identify lf of crack sealing for bid.

4)     Some on-site engineering visits will be necessary to determine repair strategy.

5)     On-site inspector will travel with contractor –
 
a) Ensure quality control
b) Verify final quantities
c) Provide final inspection and acceptance
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