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Energy Conversion Factors - Definitions
Crude Oil
CRUDE OIL
Crude oil - as petroleum directly out of the ground is called - is a remarkably varied substance, both in its use and composition. It can be a straw-colored liquid or tar-black solid. Red, green and brown hues are not uncommon.

DISTILLATE OIL
DISTILLATE OIL
A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It is used primarily for space heating, on-and-off-highway diesel engine fuel (including railroad engine fuel and fuel for agricultural machinery), and electric power generation. Included are products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuels. Distillate fuel oil is reported in the following sulfur categories: 0.05% sulfur and under,
for use in on-highway diesel engines which could be described as meeting EPA regulations; and greater than 0.05% sulfur, for use in all other distillate applications.
more... (Petroleum Supply Monthly pages 151-161)

RESIDUAL OIL
RESIDUAL OIL
 
Fuel oil that remains after the removal of valuable distillates (as
gasoline) from petroleum and that is used especially by industry -- also called resid.

BTU
British thermal unit

n. Abbr. BTU or Btu
  1. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60° to 61°F at a constant pressure of one atmosphere.
  2. The quantity of heat equal to 1/180 of the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 32° to 212°F at a constant pressure of one atmosphere.
  3. a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at one atmosphere pressure; equivalent to 251.997 calories

Therm
Therm:
 
A unit of heat equal to 100,000 British thermal units (1.054 × 108 joules)

Joule
Joule:
 
  1. The International System unit of electrical, mechanical, and thermal energy.
  2. A unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of 1 ampere is passed through a resistance of 1 ohm for 1 second.
  3. A unit of energy equal to the work done when a force of 1 newton acts through a distance of 1 meter.

Source: The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.