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Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs)
Introduction
 
Information for SB 1149 Qualified Energy Auditors
 

Building Envelope
Windows
 
  • Install double pane windows
  • Add tinted/reflective coating to window surface
  • Add exterior shading device
  • Attach storm glazing to moveable sash of operable windows
  • Reduce glass area (wall up/close off)

Doors
 
  • Install insulated doors
  • Add vestibule entry
  • Resize exterior doors (make delivery doors smaller to reduce excessive infiltration)
  • Install windscreens in areas with constant strong winds to protect exterior doors from direct blast of prevailing winds
  • Install a switch on overhead doors that prevents activation of heating and cooling units when doors are open
  • Install self-closing doors on openings to unconditioned spaces

Insulation/Infiltration
 
  • Insulate roof (rigid)
  • Insulate ceiling (batt/blow)
  • Insulate wall
  • Insulate floor
  • Insulate between heated/cooled spaces and unconditioned or outside areas such as parking garages, porticos, storage, basements and attics

Cooling
Install indirect and/or direct evaporative cooling. Also, install an economizer cycle with enthalpy or dry bulb temperature control to optimize use of outside air for "free" cooling.

Chiller/AC Equipment
 
  • Upgrade inefficient chillers
  • Add floating head pressure controls
  • Install variable speed chiller compressor motor
  • Replace air cooled condensers with cooling towers
  • Install two speed or ASD on condenser fan motor
  • Install air-to-air evaporative pre-cooling

Distribution System
 
  • Install strainer cycle to chillers
  • Rebalance water system(s)
  • Install ASD on pump motor

Heating
Install a separate DHW heater (rather than use large boiler all year for domestic hot water

Boiler/Heater Equipment
 
  • Install a higher efficiency boiler
  • Downsize boiler to match load
  • Match building heating loads by installing modular boilers
  • Install modulating burner controls or controls with 10:1 (or better) turn-down ratio
  • Convert atmospheric boiler to forced air burner
  • Install automatic flue damper
  • Purchase and install automatic staging controls
  • Install electronic ignition to fire boiler
  • Install time clock w/ low temp override

Heat Recovery Options
 
  • Capture waste heat from flue gas to preheat combustion air and/or heat feed water
  • Capture waste heat from continuous blowdown to preheat combustion air and/or heat feed water

Distribution System
 
  • Insulate piping and auxiliary equipment
  • Repair/replace condensate system leaks
  • nstall thermostatic control valves on radiators
  • Replace/ repair steam traps
  • Rebalance water system(s)
  • Install ASD on pump motor on hydronic systems

Other Heating Options
 
  • Install radiant heating

Lighting
Lamp Modification
 
  • Change MV to MH/HPS
  • Install efficient ballasts with T8 or T5 lamps
  • Delamp
  • Retrofit/replace exit signs with LED exit signs
  • Replace incandescent with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
 

Fixture Modification
 
  • Change indoor incandescent to T8 or T5 four foot fluorescent or HIDs
  • Replace exterior incandescent lamps with more efficient types such as HPS or MH
  • Reconfigure and reduce the number of light fixtures

Controls
 
  • Install local switches
  • Install occupancy sensors and dimmers
  • Install photocells on exterior lighting
  • Install daylighting controls (with dimming ballasts)
  • Provide timer switches in remote or seldom used areas where there will be brief occupancy periods

Ventilation/Distribution
Convert constant air volume (CAV) systems to variable air volume (VAV) systems.Replace variable inlet vane dampers with ASD motor drive, install filter pressure-drop gauges, and reduce air stratification.
Distribution Issues
 
  • Properly adjust and balance air systems
  • Seal ducts to prevent air leakage
  • Replace failed dampers with new low leakage models
  • Insulate ducts

Controls
 
  • Avoid simultaneously heating and cooling air (note: it may be cooled at the air handling unit and warmed at the classrooms and/or offices)
  • Install controls that will automatically close dampers during unoccupied periods
  • Install controlled or gravity dampers on all exhaust ducts to close ducts when fan is not operating
  • Install time clocks or other controls to shutoff exhaust system when not needed
  • Modulate exhaust fan speed to reduce exhausting conditioned air

Heat Recovery Options
 
  • Install air-to-air heat recovery system in ventilation system

Domestic Hot Water
Install flow restrictors and auto-off faucets. Decentralize hot water heating (go to point-of-use water heating). Lower central water loop temperature and install booster heaters. Insulate piping and tank. Add hot water preheat from waste heat sources (e.g., from chiller and/or refrigeration compressor waste heat). Replace oversized water heaters with smaller heaters and install summer heater to avoid larger heater usage and install instant DHW heaters, 90 percent plus condensing heater, andl DHW pump/tank timers.

Controls
 
  • Install a BAS/DDC system
  • Install time clocks on all boilers, chillers, and fan units
  • Replace existing room thermostats with programmable thermostats
  • Install system controls to limit electrical demand (e.g., increase cooling setpoint)
  • Install system controls to reduce heating/cooling of unoccupied spaces
  • Lock out boiler in summer and chiller in winter

Fans
 
  • Install CO2 sensors for OSA control (refered to as CO2 demand controlled ventilation)
  • Install occupancy sensors to modify room temperature setpoints and air flow rates
  • Install programmable controls on exhaust fans
  • Optimize controls loop by tuning PID coefficients
  • Install optimum stop/start devices

Lighting
 
  • Install daylighting controls
  • Install lighting sweep controls

Temperature Control
 
  • Install discharge air temperature reset devices
  • Install hot and chilled water supply temperature reset control
  • Install night setback control

Kitchen Equipment/Systems
Use evaporative cooling for make-up air cooling , install smoke activated hood ventilator, and install heat recovery system (use compressor waste heat to pre-heat dishwasher water)

Refrigeration
 
  • Install hot gas defrost
  • Install floating-head pressure controls
  • Add refrigeration insulation

Electrical Equipment
 
Upgrade to energy efficient motors and onvert to efficient motors when existing motors fail. Install variable speed motors and replace oversized motors .Purchase energy efficient equipment (i.e. computers.)

Miscellaneous
Swimming Pools
 
  • Install air-to-air heat recovery of ventilation air
  • Install de-humidification heat recovery
  • Install variable ventilation based on advanced climate controls by sensing humidity, indoor/outdoor/dew-point temperatures
  • Install low pressure-drop pool water filters/strainers
  • Install two-speed pumping
  • Install pool cover

Renewable
Install solar hot water systems and photovoltaic solar panels. Utilize geothermal heat pumps.