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Data Information and Reporting for Indicator B.c.
Oregon Indicator of Sustainable Forest Management B.c.
Forest ecosystem services' contributions to society

Forestry Program for Oregon Strategy B:
Indicator B.c. is one of three indicators that will measure progress towards achieving Forestry Program for Oregon Strategy B: Ensure that Oregon's forests provide diverse social and economic outputs and benefits provided by the public ina fair, balanced, and efficient manner.
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Other Indicators for
Stategy B Reporting

Desired trend:
Oregon forest ecosystem services produced are stable or increasing, and are sustainable.

At-a-Glance: Condition, Trend, and Information

Symbol indicating the condition is mixed
Symbol indicating the trend is uncertain
Symbol indicating the information is inadequate

Why is this indicator important?
A photo of a coastal forest scene with a large cedar tree in the foreground
Some forest values are hard to measure, but still important
Maintaining and enhancing Oregon's forests' non-commodity contributions to state and local economies, communities, and Oregon’s quality-of-life are very important to Oregonians, and recognized as important nationally.  These values, such as clean water, habitat for fisheries, and scenery, are often taken for granted because they are not generally traded in markets.  As such, they have no "price" and are therefore seemingly provided for free.
However, the goods and services that ecosystems provide are very familiar to us and would cost billions of dollars.  The demand for ecosystem services (specifically: recreation, carbon sequestration, passive-use values such as biodiversity, and water quality) is often constrained by the availability of healthy forest environments that support or provide these services.
Trends in the demand for and availability of ecosystem services is an important indicator of management and policy effects on the forested landscape's ability to provide these services.

What does this indicator tell us about sustainable forest management?

 Symbol for the condition being mixed for fair
Total recreation visits in 2007 for national forests, state parks, and state forests in Oregon were 66 million, mostly by Oregonians.  Converting this visits estimate to economic values results in a total recreation value of $514 million accruing to Oregonians and non-residents that visited national forests, state parks, and state forests in Oregon.  This is a lower bound estimate given incomplete or missing visitation data for many recreation resources.
Oregon contains an estimated 25,500 linear miles of trails, 54,600 campsites, 33 million acres of recreational land, and 818,300 acres of recreational freshwater.  Federal management encompasses the vast majority of trail miles and land; private campgrounds, in particular for RVs/trailers, managed the majority of campsites; and federal (46 percent) and state (30 percent) governments manage the majority of recreational freshwater resources.
For recreation, the condition can be classified as “good” but with reservations (See “Trend” below).  Location-specific information, along with comprehensive use and resource data, would better link local resource demand and supply, potentially enabling measurement of accessibility and crowding concerns.
Passive Use, Carbon Sequestration, and Water Quality:
Data on supply and demand conditions are currently insufficient for indicator reporting.


 Symbol for the trend being uncertain
Total recreation demand and use has increased by 28 percent between 1987 and 2002; however, total population also increased by 30 percent during this period.  In Oregon, motorized recreation (OHV, snowmobiling, boating), non-motorized recreation, hunting, fishing, and camping have increased since 1987, with hiking showing no increase, and decreases in picnicking, backpacking, and horseback riding.  Comparable national data do not exist to draw any comparison; however, other indicators suggest increased participation in all activity types over time for the nation.
Recreation use values per person, based on the literature, are increasing at a rate of about $1 per person per activity day faster than inflation, signaling outdoor recreation is increasing in value for people.  Trends in the supply, quality, and accessibility of places to recreate are unknown given the lack of temporal data.
It also is uncertain how well the supply of recreation is meeting demand in Oregon, although supply is expected to remain largely constant while total population and recreation demand and values are increasing.   Recent Wilderness designations in Oregon, particularly near urban population centers, will alter future forest recreation uses and potentially address perceived key shortages of certain recreation opportunities.
Passive Use, Carbon Sequestration, and Water Quality:
Data on supply and demand trends are currently insufficient for indicator reporting.


 Symbol for the information being inadequate
Statewide data for this indicator are inadequate.  While use estimates are reliable and accurate for national forests and state parks by location, estimates for other public and private lands/water are sparse or not known.  Supply estimates are reliable and accurate, but based on voluntary reporting for 2001 only, with no expectations of new data collection.  Value estimates are derived from the literature for Oregon and Washington, and thus may not be accurate for Oregonians’ recreational use of lands/water in Oregon for any given year.
Passive Use, Carbon Sequestration, and Water Quality:
Statewide data are inadequate.

Types of information produced by this indicator
This indicator will produce tabular information on trends in monetary measures of contributions to society and Oregon's quality-of-life from three different ecosystem services: recreation, passive use values, and carbon sequestration.

2007 Oregon Recreation Visits
Chart showing 2007 Oregon Recreation Visits; sorted by resident/non-resident and visits to State Parks, State Forests, and National Forests
Click here to display a full-page-sized PDF version of the above chart

Oregon Recreation Values (2008 dollars)
Chart showing Oregon Recreation Values in 2008 dollars for residents and non-residents sorted by Overnight and Day Use
Click here to display a full-page-sized PDF version of the above chart

Recreation use by Activity in Oregon, 1987 and 2002
Chart showing Recreation Use by Activity in Oregon during 1987 and 2002
Click here to display a full-page-sized PDF version of the above chart

Recreation Supply

The table below illustrates the total statewide supply of outdoor recreation resources; the linked table includes a PDF version of the full table of resources and and suppliers (federal, state, county, etc.).

2001 Statewide Supply of Ourdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities By Major Suppliers (OPRD) 


Recreation Resource
Statewide Total Supply
Hiking Trails
9703 miles
Bicycle Trails
1947 miles
Designated 4x4 Trails
305 miles
Designated ATV Trails
2707 miles
Designated Bridle Trails
5768 miles
Nature/Interpretive Trails
621 miles
Designated Cross-Country Ski Trails
1154 miles
Designated Snowmobile Trails
3369 miles
Downhill Skiing Areas
10,730 acres
Downhill Skiing Lifts
76,005 (lift capacity)
Day Use Picnic Tables
26,175 tables
RV/Trailer Campsites
43,901 sites
Tent Campsites
10,707 sites
Freshwater Beach Area (total area)
25,763,750 square feet
Freshwater Beach Areas
118,514 areas
Freshwater Beach Length
700 miles
Boat Ramps
783 lanes
Non-Motorized Boat Launches
322 sites
Windsurfing Access Sites
92 sites
Fishing Piers
80,165 miles
Designated Hunting Areas
17,749,202 acres
Outdoor Recreational Land
33,007,111 acres
Outdoor Recreational Land
818,219 acres

Metrics and Data Sources

Data Source
Recreation use estimate on national forests, National Visitor Use Monitoring Data (2000-2004)Dr. Eric White, USDA Forest Service
Recreation use estimates on Oregon State Parks, 2007Tom Hughes, Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
Recreation use estimates on state forests, 2007 (camping only)John Barnes, Oregon Department of Forestry
Oregon supply of outdoor recreation resources and facilitiesOregon Parks and Recreation Department
Oregon recreation user occasions and trends, 1987-2002Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
National recreation participation trends, 1994/95-2000/01 (National Survey of Recreation and the Environment)USDA Forest Service
Monetary estimates, Recration Use Values DatabaseDr. Randall Rosenberger, Oregon State University
Reference:  Rosenberger, Randall S. and J. Baur. 2009.  Developing Sustainability Metrics B.c. for Forest Ecosystem Services Contributions to Society.  Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State Univeristy. Corvallis, Oregon. 56 pp.

Related State, National, or International Indicators
  • Canadian Council of Forest Ministers: Criterion 5, social and economics benefits; Indicator 5.1.8, Value of unmarketed forest-based services.
  • Montreal Process: Criterion 6 - Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socio-economic benefits to meet the needs of societies: 2003 Indicator 43: Non-consumptive use forest values and 2010 Indicator 27: Revenue from forest based environmental services.
  • Oregon's First Approximation Report: Criterion 6 -  Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socio-economic benefits to meet the needs of societies; Indicator 43, Non-consumptive use forest values, including social/cultural, recreational and biological values.
  • 2003 California Forest and Range Assessment: Chapter 6, socio-economic well-being: commodity and non-commodity production and use trends