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Data Information and Reporting for Indicator E.b.
Oregon Indicator of Sustainable Forest Management E.b.
Extent of area by forest cover types in protected area categories.

Forestry Program for Oregon Strategy E:
Indicator E.b. is one of three indicators that will measure progress towards achieving Forestry Program for Oregon Strategy E: Contribute to the conservation of diverse native plant and animal populations and their habitats in Oregon's forests.
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Other Indicators for
Stategy E Reporting

Desired Trend
Allocations of forest cover types to protected area categories are consistent with desired future conditions established through the Oregon Conservation Strategy. 

At-a-Glance: Condition, Trend, and Information

Symbol for Mixed  Condition
Symbol for Mixed Trend
Symbol for Adequate Information

Why is this indicator important?
A photo of reserve forestland in the Willamette National Forest
Reserve forestland in the Willamette National Forest
Indicator E.b will provide the basis for documenting landscape-level changes to forest cover types allocated to various management categories.  This documentation will provide a context for discussing whether current land management allocations are adequate for providing other environmental, economic, and social benefits.
Over the past few decades, Oregon has moved towards greater protection of water, wildlife, and other environmental resources in the management of forests.  Today’s forest management is strictly regulated, and foresters and forest operators pay much more attention to environmental and aesthetic values—wildlife habitat, water quality, soil health, and scenic beauty—than in the past.  Much forestland is withdrawn from active management primarily to protect natural processes and much more is managed for a multitude of uses and benefits. 
The forest environment is protected in a variety of ways on every acre of Oregon forestlands, not just where timber harvesting and other commercial activities are restricted.  All of Oregon’s forestlands receive some level of resource protection starting with federal air, water, and species-conservation laws and our own state laws governing land use, water, fish and wildlife, and forest practices. Yet “protection” still means, to many people, protection from timber harvesting.  They tend to assume the all-or-nothing view that forestland falls into one of two rigid categories: either protected and not logged or logged and not protected.  In other words, public perception has not caught up with reality, which is both more complicated and more encouraging.

What does this indicator tell us about sustainable forest management?
 Symbol for Mixed Condition

All of Oregon's forests are covered by a package of protections, starting with federal air, water, and species conservation laws, and our own state laws governing land use, water, fish and wildlife, and forest practices.  Even where forest landscapes are dominated by privately-owned wood production forests, there are areas that receive additional protections and serve as micro-reserves for sensitive species, cultural sites, or geological features.  Underlying all of these protections are land use rules and policies that protect the fundamental value of keeping forestlands in forest cover.
When forestland is closed to commercial timber harvests and other resource extraction by law, regulation, or management plans, it is considered allocated to a “withdrawn” strategy.  The main purpose of withdrawn forest land is to manage the land primarily for environmental values. There is unequal represeentation in the amount of area of each forest type in the withdrawn category.  A small number of forest types have a large amount of their total area designated as withdrawn, while other forest types have litltle.  These forest types with little or no area designated as withdrawn  may be more vulnerable to alteration or conversion to another land use.
Oregon lacks a statewide native plant and animal conservation policy addressing all land uses and ownership classes, developed within the broader context of continuing to meet Oregon's environmental, economic, and social needs.  Such a policy is needed to determine the adequacy and equity of current forest protection strategies.


 Symbol for Mixed Trend
There has been a steady increase in the amount of land managed as "withdrawn" in Oregon over time.  In many ways, Oregon’s abundant withdrawn forestlands have been managed successfully for their intended purposes, such as promoting natural forest ecosystem process without significant human interference and providing unique recreation experiences. However, there is also tremendous fuel build-up in and near many reserved forest areas in southwestern and eastern Oregon, which increases the risk of catastrophic fire and insect infestations. 
In the past 30 years, conversion of privately-owned wood production forests to other uses - such as agriculture or residential development - has been regulated by Oregon’s land use planning system, and influenced by the economic and market forces driving landowner objectives and investment decisions. These controlling factors are in a process of change which could have a dramatic affect on the Oregon landscape in the future if wood production and multi-resource emphasis forests are converted to other uses at an increased rate.


Statewide information is available for this indicator. The data are current and regularly updated from reliable referenced sources. A future improvement would be refinements in quantifying the extent of residential and urban forests.

Land Management Classifications and Examples
For purposes of this indicator, all forested land has been categorized into one of seven different land management categories based on ownership, land allocation by the owner, and management intentions. These seven categories generally reflect the type and level of protection administered across all of Oregon’s forested lands.
Withdrawn   There are three withdrawn categories (congressionally withdrawn, agency withdrawn, private withdrawn). These forest lands are withdrawn from intensive active management to emphasize values such as natural processes, scenery, habitat, and wildlife protection.
Congressionally Withdrawn:  Federal land withdrawn by an act of the U.S. Congress.
Examples of Congressionally Withdrawn federal lands:
  • National Park
  • National Monument
  • National Recreation Area
  • National Scenic Area
  • National Wildlife Refuge
  • Wilderness Areas
Agency Withdrawn:  Federal or State land withdrawn by agency regulations or management plans. Plans can be changed by formal modification.
Examples of Agency Withdrawn public lands:
  • State Parks
  • State Wildlife Refuge
  • U.S. Forest Service and BLM Roadless Areas
  • U.S. Forest Service and BLM Late Successional Reserves
  • U.S. Forest Service and BLM Administratively Withdrawn Lands
Private Withdrawn:  Private land specifically managed for habitat conservation and natural processes by the private landowner.
Example of Private Withdrawn lands:
  • The Nature Conservancy lands
Multi-Resource:  Land managed for a variety of objectives but not exclusive to any particular one.  These objectives may include a combination of wood production, habitat, water resources, and wildlife protection.
Examples of Multi-Resource lands:
  • Oregon State Forests
  • Local Government Forests
  • Tribal Forests 
  • Bureau of Land Management Matrix
  • U.S. Forest Service Matrix
  • Bureau of Land Management Adaptive Management
  • U.S. Forest Service Adaptive Management
  • Experimental Forests
Private Land Managed Under the Oregon Forest Practices Act:  All timber operations on privately owned forest land are regulated by the Oregon Forest Practices Act. In general, large industrial owners manage their land primarily for wood production revenue.  Family Forest owners, often referred to as non-industrial private owners, may manage their land for a variety of objectives including wood production revenue, habitat, water resources, wildlife protection, and family legacy.
Examples of these types of private lands:
  • Private Industrial
  • Family Forests
Urban / Residential:  Land classified as either “Urban” or “Residential” by the Oregon Department of Forestry’s Development Zone Study.  In general, these forest lands are in private residential ownership or parks within municipalities.
Examples of Urban / Residential lands:
  • Forest Park (Portland)
  • Witham Hill Subdivision (Corvallis)
Riparian Buffers:  Land adjacent to rivers and streams, and within the above defined “Multi-Resource” and “Private Land Managed Under the Oregon Forest Practices Act” management classes.  The area within riparian buffers are estimates only because: the density of rivers and streams varies geographically (eastern Oregon vs. western Oregon; lowlands vs. uplands); actual riparian buffers are determined on a project by project basis based on topography, fish presence/absence, and other local factors.
For this indicator:
  • 30 percent of all Federal Multi-Resource land is considered to be in Riparian Buffer
  •   7 percent of all State Multi-Resource land is considered to be in Riparian Buffer
  •   4 percent of Private land is considered to be in Riparian Buffer

Report: Land Ownership, Classification, Species Distribution, and Withdrawn
The following maps and charts illustrate the ownership, land management classifications, forest tree species distribution, and change in the Congressionally Withdrawn classification over time.
Map 1 - Oregon Forest Land Dominant Tree Species [JPG; 2,614 KB]
Map 2 - Oregon Forest Land Ownership [JPG; 2,285 KB]
Map 3 - Oregon Forest Land Management Classifications [JPG; 2,257 KB]
Map 4 - Congressionally Withdrawn Forest Land [JPG; 2,004 KB]
Map 5 - Agency Withdrawn Forest Land [JPG; 2,085 KB]
Map 6 - Multi-Resource Forest Land [JPG; 2,229 KB]
Map 7 - Private Forest Land Managed Under the Oregon Forest Practices Act [JPG; 2,276 KB]
Map 8 - Federal Land Allocations [JPG; 2,199 KB]
Map 9   - Congressionally Withdrawn 1960 [JPG; 1,995 KB]
Map 10 - Congressionally Withdrawn 1965 [JPG; 1,990 KB]
Map 11 - Congressionally Withdrawn 1975 [JPG; 2,017 KB]
Map 12 - Congressionally Withdrawn 1985 [JPG; 2,044 KB]
Map 13 - Congressionally Withdrawn 1995 [JPG; 2,054 KB]
Map 14 - Congressionally Withdrawn 2000 [JPG; 2,064 KB]
Map 15 - Congressionally Withdrawn 2010 [JPG; 2,075 KB]
Presentation - History of Congressionally Withdrawn Forest Land 1960-2010 [PDF; 3,050 KB]
Map 16 – Chart – Acres by Management Class [JPG; 2,387 KB]
Map 17 – Chart – Acres by Management Class and Ownership [JPG; 2,386 KB]
Map 18 – Chart – Acres by Management Class and Forest Cover Type [JPG; 2,517 KB]
                             (Burned and Recent Harvest; Bigleaf Maple / Alder; Douglas-fir)
Map 19 – Chart – Acres by Management Class and Forest Cover Type [JPG; 2,500 KB]
                             (Larch / Grand Fir; Lodgepole Pine; Madrone / Tanoak)
Map 20 – Chart – Acres by Management Class and Forest Cover Type [JPG; 2,503 KB]
                             (Mountain Hemlock / Silver Fir / Subalpine Fir; White Oak; Ponderosa Pine)
Map 21 – Chart – Acres by Management Class and Forest Cover Type [JPG; 2,507 KB]
                             (Shasta Red Fir; Western Hemlock; Other Forest Species)

Roundtable Evaluation for Indicator E.b.
Evaluation for E.b. [PDF; 6 pages; 217 KB]
Staff Resonse for E.b. [PDF; 3 pages; 177 KB]  

Related State, National, or International Indicators
  • Montreal Process: Criterion 1 - Conservation of biological diversity: 2003 Indicator 3: Extent of area by forest type in protected area categories as defined by the World Conservation Union or other classification system; 2003 Indicator 4: Extent of areas by forest type in protected areas defined by age class or successional stage; 2003 Indicator 5: Fragmentation of forest types; and 2010 Indicator 2: Area and percent of forest in protected areas by forest ecosystem type, and by age class or successional stage
  • Oregon Benchmarks: Environment - 83: Percent of Oregon's non-federal forest land in 1974 still preserved for forest use
  • Oregon Benchmarks Environment - 89: Percent of land in Oregon that is a natural habitat
  • Heinz Center: Forest types; Forest types with significantly reduced area; Forest age; Forest management categories
  • British Columbia: Indicator 1-2 - What are the types and ages of British Columbia's forest ecosystems? How have British Columbia's forests changed over the last century?
  • Northeastern Area: 1.4 - Area of forest land relative to total land and area of reserved land; extent of area by forest type and by size class, age class, and successional stage
  • Oregon State of the Environment report: Percentage of at-risk species that are protected in dedicated conservation areas
  • Mt. Hood National Forest: Landscape diversity; landscape pattern; special habitats