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Criterion 7 Indicator 55
The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework Includes the Capacity to Develop and Maintain Human Resource Skills Across Relevant Disciplines   The management practices that determine forest sustainability depend largely upon human skill and ingenuity. A wide range of disciplines and skills is necessary to achieve the goals of sustainable forest management, including not only the traditional scientific disciplines of forestry, botany, wildlife biology, and ecology, but also the social sciences of economics, anthropology, and conflict resolution.
Institutional framework for non-federal forest lands — human resource skills
Skills in professional disciplines are developed both through formal education and on-the-job training. These skills are maintained through direct experience working in the discipline as well as through professional societies, continuing education programs, extension landowner outreach programs, and technical/trade training and assistance programs.
Oregon’s colleges and universities offer a full range of programs designed to develop the skills necessary to manage forests for sustainability. Oregon State University offers undergraduate degree programs in fisheries and wildlife science, forest management, forest recreation resources, natural resources, forest engineering, forest products, biochemistry-biophysics, botany and plant pathology, entomology, microbiology, and zoology. Graduate degrees are also offered in forest engineering, forest hydrology, forest ecology, forest genetics, forest tree physiology, integrated forest protection, silviculture, agroforestry, and sustainable forestry. Oregon also has a system of community colleges that offer two-year technical degree programs designed to develop skills in forest-related fields such as timber management, silviculture, cruising, inventorying, harvesting, log scaling, surveying, fire control, recreation, and wildlife management.
Institutional framework for federally managed forests — human resource skills
The federal forest management agencies also need a wide range of disciplines and skills in order to manage the public forest resources sustainably. Although these agencies are reducing the number of their employees in response to smaller budgets, managers are careful to maintain a diversity of skills and professions in their workforce and to recruit professional staff with the skills needed. Cooperative education programs, which offer scholarships and internships to selected individuals, help to build a foundation for future management.