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Youth Risk Overview

Youth Risk Overview

The Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) Risk Overview provides youth's Risk/Needs profile based on a series of scores generated by assessment tools and other data in JJIS.
These scores can assist in decision making for appropriate supervision levels, service type and dosage, readiness for transition, and support program evaluation.


NOTE:  JJIS does not generate the scores — the scoring is calculated based on data in JJIS (see research briefs).  The calculations are performed in the JJIS Reports System and passed into JJIS.  The scores are not real-time because they are generated during the weekly refresh of the JJIS Reports Database.
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Which Tools Apply to Which Population?


Youth Population ​Tool ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​
Predicted Success Rates
JCP
ORRA
ORRA-V
RNA
OTA
Typology
ONIRA
OVIRA
County – 
No Disposition
x
 
 
x
 
 
County –
Probation
x
x
x
x
(per local policy)
x
x
(w/ OYA RNA or OTA)
 
OYA –
Probation
x
 
x
x
x*
x
 
OYA - 
Close Custody
x
 
x
x
x*
x
x

​DOC -
in OYA Custody

​x ​x ​x* ​x ​x
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​
*OTA - build and base capabilities of OYA RNA from OTA

 ​

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Predicted Success Rates

The Predicted Success Rates are estimates that predict the probability that youth will be successful - not recidivate within three years - if they are placed in different environments.

The estimates are based upon data collected from the Juvenile Crime Prevention (JCP) assessment, ORRA, and youth typology.

Estimated success rates are created for county probation, OYA community placement, and OYA youth correctional facility. 

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JCP

 

The JCP is a validated risk assessment that identifies the risk of a new criminal referral within 12 months.  Using criminogenic risk and protective factors, it is used to guide local county case planning and responses to violations.

JCP.jpg


For more information, visit the Oregon Juvenile Department Directors' Association (OJDDA) - JCP Assessment website. 

See the Frequently Asked Questions section on this page for more information. 
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ORRA and ORRA-V

 

OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment (ORRA)

  • ORRA Score — predicts the likelihood a youth will recidivate with a felony adjudication or conviction within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody
  •  

OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment –Violent Crime (ORRA-V)

  • ORRA-V Score — predicts the likelihood a youth will recidivate with a felony adjudication or conviction for a violent crime within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody

    The ORRA-V Score assesses risk for violent or threatening crimes that result in — or could result in — physical harm.  Examples include homicide, assault, rape, robbery, and weapon offenses.  
ORRAORRAV.jpg



Percentile Ranks
  • Disposition Level Percentile Rank — indicates the percentage of youth with the same disposition level who will have an equal or lesser ORRA or ORRA-V score on a reported date
  •  
  • All Dispositions Percentile Rank — indicates the percentage of youth in the juvenile justice system who will have an equal or lesser ORRA or ORRA-V score on a reported date

The disposition levels are:

  • County Probation
  • OYA Probation
  • OYA Commitment for YCF
  • DOC Commitment for YCF

NOTE:  A disposition of at least County Probation is required to generate an ORRA or ORRA-V score.

 

ORRA EXAMPLE:  Disposition Level — OYA Commitment for YCF
ORRA Score
21
21% likelihood of recidivating with a felony conviction or adjudication within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody
ORRA
Disposition Level
Percentile Rank
55
55% of youth with the same disposition will have an ORRA score equal to or less than 21.
(Conversely, 45% of youth will have an ORRA score higher than 21.)


 
ORRA
All Dispositions
Percentile Rank
66
66% of all youth across the four dispositions will have an ORRA score equal to or less than 21.
(Conversely, 34% of youth will have an ORRA score higher than 21.)

 

     
     
    ORRA-V EXAMPLE:  Disposition Level — OYA Commitment for YCF
    ORRA-V Score
    10
    10% likelihood of recidivating with a felony conviction or adjudication for a violent crime within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody
    ORRA-V
    Disposition Level
    Percentile Rank
    53
    53% of youth with the same disposition will have an ORRA-V score equal to or less than 10.
    (Conversely, 47% of youth will have an ORRA-V score higher than 10.)
    ORRA-V.jpg




    ORRA-V
    All Dispositions
    Percentile Rank
    61
    61% of all youth across the four dispositions will have an ORRA-V score equal to or less than 10.
    (Conversely, 39% of youth will have an ORRA-V score higher than 10.)
     
     
    See the Frequently Asked Questions section on this page for more information.​

 

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RNA and OTA

The OYA Risk Needs Assessment (RNA) is a validated assessment and can be used to predict risk of youth recidivism. 

  • Recidivism -- the likelihood a youth will recidivate with a felony adjudication or conviction within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody



  

The assessment also identifies areas of risk, need, and protective factors in known criminogenic risk areas for youth offenders; and assists in the development of a case plan in domains such as offense specific, family, mental health, substance use, education, vocation, life/social skills, and medical.
 
The Oregon Typology Assessment (OTA) is an assessment that is used to capture a youth's typology.  The OTA is derived from the RNA and includes only the questions from the RNA that determine a youth's typology.  The OTA assists in determining a youth's typology while on county supervision or pre-OYA commitment to use for planning and placement decisions.
 
See the Frequently Asked Questions section on this page for more information.
 
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Typology

As part of the Youth Reformation System (YRS), the Oregon Youth Authority and its community partners have developed a set of research-based "typologies" to help them inform decision making about best placement and treatment strategies for youth who are part of the juvenile justice system. This set of typologies serves as an important tool in helping guide decisions about the right placement, right treatment, and right time for the youth we serve.

Within the first 30 days a youth enters the Oregon Youth Authority, a Risk Needs Assessment (RNA) is developed based on data such as criminal history, drug or alcohol use, family history, physical and mental health status, skills, level of aggression and many other factors. Based on information derived from 10 factors within the RNA, each youth is determined to contain the characteristics of a certain typology or a blend of two or more typologies.

Typologies - along with other tools such as the OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment (ORRA) and OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment-Violent Crime (ORRA-V) - are combined with staff's professional judgment to best meet the needs of each youth and to help youth go on to lead productive, crime-free lives.

A youth's typology alone does not serve as a decision point; instead, the score is used as an important piece of evidence-based research that helps inform the juvenile justice community as it determines the best strategies to help youth go on to lead productive, crime-free lives.

Typology.jpg



 
 

 Click the following links for more information about each of the typologies: 

Male Typologies
 
  • Few or no protective factors present
  • High history of and current AOD use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • High need of mental health follow-up
 
  • Moderate protective factors present
  • High history of AOD use and moderate current AOD use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • Low need of immediate mental health follow-up
 
 
  • Moderate protective factors present
  • Low to moderate AOD use both currently and historically
  • Moderate difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • History of mental health
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • High need of immediate mental health follow-up
 
  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Low to no current or historical AOD use
  • No obvious needs factors present
  • Further assessments needed
  • Determine eligibility for community placement or close custody if stabilization is required
 
  • High protective factors present
  • Low current or historical AOD use
  • Little difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Low to moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Low need for immediate mental health follow-up
  • Education issues are moderately prominent
  • Responsivity issues
 

 

  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Moderate current and historical AOD use
  • Moderate difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • Responsivity issues
  • Moderate need for immediate mental health follow-up

 

 Female Typologies
 
Type 1
  • Low to moderate protective factors present
  • High history of and current AOD use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • High need of mental health follow-up
 
 Type 2
  • Moderate protective factors present
  • Moderate history of AOD use and moderate current AOD use
  • Some issues with relationships and relationship skills
  • Low level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are moderate
  • High need of immediate mental health follow-up
 
 Type 3
  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Low to no current or historical AOD use
  • Some difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Further assessments needed
  • Determine eligibility for community placement or close custody if stabilization is required


​Type 4

  • Low protective factors present
  • Moderate history AOD use, low current AOD use
  • Moderate to high difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are prominent
  • Moderate need for immediate mental health follow-up

 

  

 

NOTE:  An OYA RNA or OTA is required to generate a typology. 

 

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ONIRA and OVIRA

ONIRAOVIRA.jpg

ONIRA - OYA Nuisance Incident Risk Assessment

  • ONIRA Score -- predicts the likelihood a youth will engage in at least four nuisance incidents within six months of admission to OYA close custody
  • ONIRA Percentile Rank -- indicates the percentage of youth in close custody who will have an equal or lesser ONIRA score on a reported date

 

ONIRA EXAMPLE
ONIRA Score
11
11% likelihood of engaging in at least four nuisance incidents within six months of admission to OYA close custody.
ONIRA
Percentile Rank
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
42
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
42% of youth in close custody for less than three years will have ONIRA scores equal to or less than 11.
(Conversely, 58% of youth will have an ONIRA score higher than 11.)
 
 
 
 
 
ONIRA.jpg



 
 

 

OVIRA - OYA Violent Incident Risk Assessment
  • OVIRA Score -- predicts the likelihood a youth will engage in at least one violent incident within six months of admission to OYA close custody
  •  
  • OVIRA Percentile Rank -- indicates the percentage of youth in close custody who will have an equal or lesser OVIRA score on a reported date

     

OVIRA EXAMPLE
OVIRA Score
19
19% likelihood of engaging in at least one violent incident within six months of admission to OYA close custody.
OVIRA
Percentile Rank
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
41
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
41% of youth in close custody for less than three years will have OVIRA scores equal to or less than 19.
(Conversely, 59% of youth will have an OVIRA score higher than 19.)
 
 
 
 
 
OVIRA.jpg



 
 

 

NOTE:  ONIRA and OVIRA scores are relevant only to OYA and DOC correctional facility commitments.

The percentile rank cohort is based on youth who have been in close custody for less than three years.

An OYA RNA is required to generate ONIRA and OVIRA scores. 

 

See the Frequently Asked Questions section on this page for more information.​

 

 
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Online Presentation

 

 

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Frequently Asked Questions

OYA RNA
Q:  With the new risk tools, do I still complete an OYA RNA?
A:  Current policy requirements have not changed.  In fact, the OYA RNA is the assessment we use to determine a youth’s typology and to generate ONIRA and OVIRA scores. The OYA RNA is still an important and valuable part of OYA’s intake process.
 
JCP
Q:  With the new risk tools, do I still complete a JCP?
A:  Current policy requirements have not ​changed.  These new tools do not replace the county JCP Risk Assessment.  The JCP is necessary to assess risk and needs for youth entering the system.
 
ORRA / ORRA-V
Q:  Do all youth have an ORRA and ORRA-V score?
A:  No.  The ORRA and ORRA-V are valid only for youth who have reached the level of county probation, OYA probation, or OYA/DOC Commitment.
Q:  Can I obtain an ORRA/ORRA-V score before adjudication to help inform the dispositional decision?
A:  ORRA/ORRA-V scores are only available for youth once they receive a court ordered disposition of county probation, OYA probation, or OYA Close Custody and that disposition is recorded in JJIS.  However, the Pre-Dispo ORRA score will generate in JJIS at first petition filing and may be helpful in informing dispositional decision making.
Q:  Do the ORRA and ORRA-V scores ever change for a youth?
A:  Yes.  ORRA and ORRA-V will increase in very small increments as youth get older. Additionally, if a youth continues to engage in criminal activity, that is likely to increase their scores.
Q:  When are the ORRA/ORRA-V scores best utilized in the decision making process?
A:  Although this will be driven by local policy, it is recommended that the ORRA and ORRA-V scores be used during the intake process to enhance decision-making around placement and treatment in an effective environment that mitigates the risk of recidivating.
Q:  What is the difference between ORRA/ORRA-V “Disposition Level Percentile Rank” and “All Dispositions Percentile Rank”?
A:   “Disposition Level Percentile Rank” indicates the percentage of youth with the same disposition level who will have an equal or lesser ORRA or ORRA-V score on a reported date.
“All Dispositions Percentile Rank” indicates the percentage of youth in the juvenile justice system who will have an equal or lesser ORRA or ORRA-V score on a reported date.
 
Pre-Dispo ORRA
Q:   How does the Pre-Dispo ORRA differ from the ORRA?
A:  The Pre-Dispo ORRA is displayed at the time of the first petition filing. The Pre-Dispo ORRA score may be slightly lower than the ORRA score because a disposition has not yet been recorded. Finally, once a disposition has been recorded and an ORRA score is generated, the Pre-Dispo ORRA will no longer display in JJIS. 
 
Typology
Q:   When the Typology comes from the OYA RNA, what factors or components are used in determining the Typology?
A:  The following RNA elements are used in the methodology to create a typology:

- Attitudes & Behavior and Aggression composite

- School History

- Current Use of Time

- Current Relationships (Protective and Risk)

- Family History

- Alcohol and Drug Use History

- Current Alcohol and Drug Use

- Mental Health HistoryMental Health History

       These components of the RNA make up the OTA.

Q:  Does the JCP risk assessment also generate a typology?
A:  No; however, OYA’s Research & Evaluation Unit is working on an analysis to determine if typologies can be generated from the JCP.
 
Q:  What is the Oregon Typology Assessment (OTA)?
A:  The OTA is a modified OYA RNA that identifies the typology of youth.  The questions within the RNA that determine a youth's typology have been condensed into a shorter ssessment to quickly determine a youth's typology.  County Juvenile Departments that do not complete the entire RNA can use the OTA to help inform case planning and placement decisions.
 
Q:  What is the difference between the RNA and OTA?
A:  The RNA is a comprehensive assessment that assesses for both risk and need.  The RNA is the preferred assessment for case planning purposes as it identifies youth criminogenic risk (dynamic factors that are crime producing) as well as a youth typology.  The OTA is specific to generating a youth typology but does not assess for risk. 

 

Predicted Success Rates
Q:  How are predicted success rates determined?
A:  Predicted success rates are calculated based on information from the JCP, ORRA (or Pre-Dispo ORRA), and youth typology. Predicted success rates for placement on county probation are based upon specific questions within the JCP and predicted success rates for OYA community placement and OYA YCF is based on data from ORRA (or Pre-Dispo ORRA) and youth typology. 
Q:  What does it mean if the predicted success rate scores are not displaying in JJIS?
A:  To ensure youth will have predicted success rates, the JCP, ORRA (or Pre-Dispo ORRA), and youth typology must be available.  The assessments (i.e., RNA [or OTA] and JCP) needed to generate these estimates must be completed and locked in JJIS within the last 12 months.  Youth with a disposition involving a crime classified as a Class B misdemeanor or lower, will not have an OYA YCF predicted success rate.

*Statute requires a Class A misdemeanor or greater for a youth to be placed in a YCF.
 
Q:  What if the predicted success rates for two environments are really close?
A:  In some cases, the predicted success rate will be close or nearly identical for two or more settings. What this means is that the likelihood of success in those settings is pretty much the same. In these situations, it is even more important to rely upon professional discretion to make the best placement decision. Some things to consider include stability of the family, educational needs, and treatment needs, to name a few. 

 

ONIRA / OVIRA

Q:  If a youth leaves an intake unit prior to the first six months, are the ONIRA and OVIRA scores still accurate for the next facility or unit?
A:  Maybe.  The ONIRA and OVIRA are valid for youth in the first six months of OYA close custody.  However, youth develop quickly, and they may have had experiences on the intake unit that have mitigated or magnified their risk for engaging in incidents. In these cases, it is best to use ONIRA and OVIRA in addition to information about how the youth has behaved on the intake unit rather than rely only on the score.
Q:  Are the ONIRA and OVIRA scores still accurate for a community setting if a youth leaves an intake unit prior to the first six months?
A:  No.  The ONIRA and OVIRA predict likelihood of an incident in close custody.
Q:  When are the ONIRA/OVIRA scores best utilized in the decision making process?
A:  Although this will be driven by local policy, it is recommended that the ONIRA and OVIRA scores are used to inform staff of potential behavior to inform the type of environment that may benefit a youth.
Placement decisions should be based on an environment that mitigates the risk of incidents.
 
General
Q:  How can I use these tools in my work with youth?
A:  These tools are guides to enhance decision-making. The risk tools help you understand how “risky” one youth is compared to other youth and can help you align placement and treatment decisions effectively. For example, if you have a youth with an ORRA of 60 and another youth with an ORRA of 30, you might prioritize resources for the higher risk youth. The typology will help you understand the specific needs youth have at intake. You can use this information as a road map and use information about which programs work well with which types to make placement decisions.
Q:  Since the new tools are only valid for some youth, what will be displayed in JJIS?
A:  Youth who do not have valid scores with any of the tools will not have a score displayed in the relevant section on the JJIS Risk Overview Screen.
Q:  Do I need to do additional work to create these scores?
A:  No, all the scores, percentile rankings, and typologies are generated based on data recorded in JJIS.
- Predicted success rates are displayed for all youth with a JCP, ORRA
(or Pre-Dispo ORRA), and youth typology.
- The ORRA and ORRA-V are displayed for all youth with a formal disposition.
- The ONIRA, OVIRA, and Typologies are available for all youth with a completed
OYA RNA.
JJIS does not generate the scores — the calculations are performed in the JJIS Reports System and passed into JJIS.  The scores are not real-time because they are generated during the refresh of the JJIS Reports database.
Q:  The RNA has low, moderate and high risk categories.  The JCP also has thresholds.  Will the ORRA, ORRA-V, ONIRA and OVIRA have similar categories or just a percentile ranking?
A:  No.  The new tools generate percentile rankings only in order to provide a more precise prediction of risk, as well as the ability to compare specific youth’s risk relative to other youth.
Q:  Are there policy guidelines or directives for how these tools will be used?
A:   No.  The intent is to provide the data, generate understanding about what the data means, clarify which populations the tools can be used with, and add research based information to help inform local decision making.  Any policy guidelines may be developed at the local level with local leadership.

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- Contacts for more information

OYA Youth Reformation System Team

JJIS Business Analysts

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