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Literacy Framework for Writing

This page includes information about a legacy document. Resources will be updated to reflect new standards and current promising practices and pedagogy. 


Aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Writing, the Writing Framework provides a roadmap for districts and schools to ensure students meet or exceed the CCSS for Writing each grade level each content area ...during each school year and graduate with an Oregon Diploma prepared as writers for college and career without need for writing remediation…because writing well matters.

Entire Writing Framework

A comprehensive writing assessment system for K-12 is explicitly linked to writing goals and uses multiple data sources to evaluate student writing.

A Comprehensive Writing Assessment System:

  • Relies on measures of writing that demonstrate reliability and validity for the purpose(s) they are being used
  • Includes writing assessments and measures that are linked explicitly to writing goals
  • Is organized, integrated, and composed of multiple sources of data
  • Uses data from writing assessments, portfolios, and teacher judgments to make informed instructional decisions regarding the areas in which students might need additional instructional support.​

Writing goals that focus on students’ fluency, productivity, writing quality, and use of the writing process to write multiple forms of text across the content areas—anchor a school’s comprehensive writing plan.

  • A critical school responsibility is ensuring K-12 students develop the skills to write fluently, so they are able produce the amount (and quality) of writing necessary to complete school assignments and other academic tasks.
  • A primary writing goal across K-12 is that students must adapt their written communication to audience, task, purpose, and discipline, and apply the conventions associated with different writing genres.
  • K-12 students use all aspects of the writing process to produce high quality, coherent writing.
  • K-12 students must use writing to think and learn, respond to reading tasks, and research and build knowledge.
  • K-12 students must write frequently and regularly over extended and shorter timeframes.​​

High quality writing instruction involves the integration of six organizing principles.

  • Requires sufficient time for systematic writing opportunities both within English language arts classes, where writing instruction and practice traditionally occur, and in all content area classes.
  • Details the rationale and methods for explicitly teaching the writing process, including the incorporation of student writing strategies for planning, writing first drafts, revising, and editing text across different text genres.
  • Addresses different types of discourse knowledge that will help students write more effectively.
  • Addresses motivation as a key element in writing development by examining strategies to help students view themselves as capable writers and providing authentic writing activities within the overall writing program.
  • Incorporates differentiated instruction through a multi-tiered instructional approach.
  • Uses writing as a tool to strengthen reading comprehension and to enhance learning across the curriculum.​

School leaders strategically prioritize efforts to optimize the attainment of writing goals for all students.

School leaders ensure the alignment of writing instruction to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and

  • Actively lead efforts to improve student writing outcomes and meet the K-12 CCSS in Writing
  • Demonstrate commitment to and prioritization of strong writing outcomes for all students
  • Provide strong support for effective writing assessment and instructional practices
  • Allocate and manage school resources to support high-quality writing instruction
  • Provide effective professional development (training, collaboration, supervision and support) to support improved writing instruction.​

High-quality, effective professional development focuses on attaining school writing goals through the use of assessment data.

Professional Development:

  • Focuses on attaining school writing goals through the use of assessment data;
  • Emphasizes the implementation of research-based practices and strategies;
  • Allocates sufficient time for all educators to plan, reflect, and refine instruction;
  • Supports teachers and instructional staff on the use of writing assessment and instructional implementation with a multifaceted, coordinated, and ongoing approach;
  • Differentiates by staff position and need; and
  • Results in a thorough understanding of, and ability to implement, writing standards and practices effectively.​

The implementation components of K-12 Writing, also located in the Oregon K-12 Literacy Framework—Writing, are designed to put the literacy planning schools and districts do into action. Two tools—the School Self Assessment and the School Implementation Guide—are intended to help districts and schools begin planning and then to move gradually from planning to high-quality writing implementation.

The first step of implementation is for schools and districts to determine what is currently in place in schools with respect to goals, assessment, instruction, leadership, professional development, and commitment. To obtain this information, they conduct an internal audit using the School Self-assessment. Not only does this process lead to the next step of implementation but the process of engaging in the audit is highly beneficial on its own. It is unifying and instructive for teachers and administrators to work together to take inventory of the school’s writing program (e.g., writing instruction, materials, assessments). The self assessment tool includes items related to (a) Goals, (b) Assessment, (c) Instruction, (d) Professional development, and (e) Leadership and Commitment.

In the next part of the process, a school and district prioritize a school’s needs (based on summary scores and other considerations) and prepare for implementation. The Implementation Guide is then used to guide and improve implementation efforts. The idea is that as implementation improves, a school moves from not in place to partially in place (Phase I) and from partially in place to fully in place (Phase II).

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