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Reports
6th Annual Report
Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse
Sixth Annual Report
July 1 1992 – June 30, 1993
Coordinator, Ellen Fader, Public Library Consultant
The Center for the Book
Oregon State Library
1993
 
Goal of the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse
 
The goal of the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse is to uphold the principles of the Library Bill of Rights in all types of libraries, by improving communication between librarians, board members, professional associations, and other concerned groups in Oregon about challenges to intellectual freedom, and by increasing awareness as to how threats to intellectual freedom can be overcome.
 
Objectives of the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse
 
To establish a central clearinghouse to collect and disseminate reports about challenges to intellectual freedom in all types of Oregon libraries.
 
To provide information about challenged materials to public library directors and library board members, school media center librarians, and academic librarians when requests for reconsideration of materials are formally registered.
 
To provide information to public library directors and library board members, school media center librarians, and academic librarians about establishing appropriate policies and procedures before a challenge to intellectual freedom occurs.
 
To cooperate with other persons and groups concerned with intellectual freedom or related issues.
 
Scope and Methodology of the Clearinghouse
 
The data collected is limited to formal challenges against any type of library material in any type of Oregon library.  A formal challenge is defined here as a written "Request for Reconsideration" or "Statement of Concern" submitted by a group or individual to a library.  The Clearinghouse will report informal (not written) challenges when such challenges are of interest because they have received significant public debate.
 
The Clearinghouse reports details about challenges as they are recorded on "Reconsideration Report" forms submitted by library or school staff, or occasionally by citizens.  Further information about details is obtained from newspaper reports, if available.  In a few instances, newspaper articles are the sole source of information about a challenge.  Editorial license is employed in summarizing details from the forms to the annual report. 
 
The Sixth Annual Report summarizes 79 challenges against library materials that took place between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 1993.  A six year overview of Clearinghouse data accompanies the summaries of the challenges.  Completing this report is an index to all the challenged library materials reported to date.  The index provides a reference to which library experienced the challenge and which annual report contains the details about the challenge.  For further information, call Ellen Fader, Public Library Consultant, Oregon State Library, at 503-378-2112, ext. 224.
 
Summary of Challenges Reported in 1992-93
 
The Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received information about 79 challenges to library materials between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 1993.  The formats challenged included 71 books, 5 videos, and 3 periodicals.  Public libraries experienced 56 of the challenges and school libraries experienced 23 challenges.  Forty-three of the challenged materials were designated as children's and young adult materials and 36 were materials for adults.  In 70 of the 79 challenges, library staff, committees, library boards, or school boards decided that the challenged materials should be retained.  In 2 instances the decision was made to reclassify the materials, and in 4 instances materials were restricted in use.  Final decisions removed materials from 2 libraries.  This year the Clearinghouse is reporting a new final decision category: to replace materials with a new edition, or with alternate titles on the same subject.  In 1992-93, one magazine was replaced. 
 
The largest number of objections to library materials in 1992-93 focused on homosexual content.  There were 35 challenges based on objections to materials containing references to homosexuality.  For the first time, the Clearinghouse is reporting this as a type of objection.  Objections to references to homosexuality were formerly categorized with the graphic sex and language objections.  The Clearinghouse decided to track objections to references to homosexuality this year because of interest in the effects of Ballot Measure 9.  The Oregon Citizens Alliance sponsored this ballot measure attempting to amend the Oregon Constitution to prohibit protection of homosexual rights. Ballot Measure 9 would have prohibited local governments from expending funds to promote, condone, or encourage homosexuality.  The language of Ballot Measure 9 would have affected the ability of libraries to purchase materials about homosexuality, and may have resulted in widespread decisions to remove materials addressing homosexuality from libraries.  The statewide ballot measure was ultimately defeated in the November, 1992 election.  In addition, the Oregon Citizens Alliance has promoted local initiatives attempting to prohibit protection of homosexual rights.  The citizens in four counties and four cities have passed these initiatives, which prohibit public libraries from loaning to children materials that address homosexuality.  In response, the Oregon Legislative Assembly approved a bill that would bar local governments from enacting these initiatives.  At this time, local governments, and the libraries they administer, are awaiting interpretations of the new law.  No library in a jurisdiction where the anti-homosexuality measures passed has yet reported a challenge to materials that address homosexuality. 
 
Materials with sexual references and themes, other than homosexuality, and graphic language, were challenged 19 times.  Stories or illustrations that were considered too scary or violent for children were challenged 12 times.  Books with perceived occult, witchcraft, or satanic references were challenged 4 times.  Challenges reported in the "other" category registered objections to undermining parental authority and disrespect for children's elders, dehumanizing of Native Americans, disrespect for the groups that comprise a diverse society, and disrespect by a wife for her husband after his death.
 
The challenges listed below are organized according to library type, public or school, and arranged alphabetically by the name of the library where the challenges occurred.  Under the name of each library, the materials challenged are listed in alphabetical order by title.  Under the summary of events, the phrase "Staff review process" refers to adopted procedures by which library staff read or view the materials, collect reviews and other information about the material, and make the initial decision about the challenged item.  This procedure is more common in public libraries.  Generally, the library director writes a letter informing the library patron of the decision and explaining the appeals process, in case the citizen is not satisfied with the decision.  The phrase "Committee review process" refers to adopted procedures by which a committee, such as an Instructional Materials Review Committee, makes the initial decision about the challenged item.  This procedure is more common in schools.  Generally, the school board makes the final decision based on a recommendation from the Committee.
 
Challenges in Public Libraries
 
Albany Public Library, Albany
Meet the Werewolf by Georgess McHargue (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed that the book may encourage children to make pacts with the Devil; contains incantations and threats of spiritual thievery; believes the book is demonic and evil.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 9/22/92.
 
Deschutes County Library, Bend
After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Hatred and Fear of Homosexuals in the '90s by Marshall Kirk and Hunter Madsen (Adult)
The Arizona Kid by Ronald Koertge (Young Adult)
Being Homosexual: Gay Men and Their Development by Richard A. Isay (Adult)
The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies by Vito Russo (Adult)
Cities on a Hill: A Journey Through Contemporary American Cultures by Frances Fitzgerald (Adult)
Dance on My Grave: A Life and Death in Four Parts by Aidan Chambers (Young Adult)
The Darker Proof: Stories From a Crisis by Edmund White and Adam Mars-Jones (Adult)
First Love/Last Love: New Fiction from Christopher Street by Michael Denneny, Charles Ortlieb, and Thomas Steele (Adult)
The Gentleman From Maryland: The Conscience of a Gay Conservative by Robert Bauman (Adult)
Growing Up Straight by Peter Wyden (Adult)
Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women by Alan P. Bell and Martin S. Weinberg (Adult)
Homosexuality: The Test Case for Christian Sexual Ethics by James P. Hanigan (Adult)
A Legal Guide for Gay and Lesbian Couples by Hayden Curry and Denis Clifford (Adult)
One Teenager in Ten: Testimony by Gay and Lesbian Youth edited by Ann Heron (Young Adult)
The Vatican and Homosexuality: Reactions to the "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons" by Jeannine Gramick and Pat Furey (Adult)
Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey by Martin Dubberman (Adult)
What Happened to Mr. Forster? by Gary Bargar (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: An individual member of the Oregon Citizens Alliance requested removal of seventeen books; concern expressed that these materials exist to promote homosexuality and moral decay.  (See also Bend Senior High School challenges.)
Summary of events: Staff review process.  All books recommended for retention.  Letter sent 6/23/93.  Appeal to Library Board filed.  Board voted to uphold original decision, 7/93.
 
Douglas County Library System, Roseburg
American Children's Folklore compiled by Simon J. Bronner (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book is crude, contains unwholesome jokes, and would cause nightmares and hateful behavior.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 11/23/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Courage to Heal by Ellen Bass and Laura Davis (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about lesbian content; suggested removal or reclassification.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 9/2/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
FFolkes Cartoon Companion to Classical Mythology by Michael Ffolkes (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book contributes to the delinquency of minors by promoting perverse sex and denigrating families
and religious values.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 1/29/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Jelly Belly by Robert Kimmel Smith (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed about language ("Oh, God"); requested the book be burned or words blacked out.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained without censorship, 1/29/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
North American Indian Artifacts by Lars Hothem (Adult)
Summary of objections:  Concern expressed that the book dehumanizes Native Americans.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 9/29/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Raw edited by Art Spiegelman and Françoise Mouly (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book is pornographic; suggested removal from collection or restrictions for children.
Summary of events: No written request for reconsideration was filed with the library.  Parent registered concerns directly with County Commissioners and Library Board, and by letters in local newspaper.  Staff engaged in review process and reported to Board.  Without a written challenge, no official decision concerning the item was necessary.  Book retained, 10/19/92.
Roald Dahl's Revolting Rhymes by Roald Dahl (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about violent, lewd content; requested removal.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 9/29/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Thrasher Magazine (Periodical)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about language and attitudes; patron felt the magazine is more about Neo-Nazism than skateboarding.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Survey of public use implemented to gather further information.  Staff did not perceive that magazine promotes a Neo-Nazi viewpoint, but felt it has shifted from a skateboarding theme.  Will be replaced with a different skateboarding magazine.  Letter sent, 8/13/92.
Wheels for Walking by Sandra Richmond (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about profanity; gives children impression that use of obscene language is acceptable.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained, 8/13/92.
 
Driftwood Library, Lincoln City
Beyond Safe Boundaries by Margaret Sacks (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Thirteen-year old expressed concern that sexual content would encourage sexual experimentation and lead to pregnancy or AIDS; suggested reclassification to adult or warning label.   
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained in young adult collection, 3/18/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
 
Hillsboro Public Library, Hillsboro
The Duke Who Outlawed Jellybeans by Johnny Valentine (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book promotes homosexual lifestyle; suggested book be removed from collection.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Staff committee met with concerned persons and discussed issues.  Book retained, 5/18/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
 
Multnomah County Library, Portland
The Adventures of Tintin in America by Hergé (Juvenile)
Summary of objections:  Concern expressed that the book is disrespectful to groups that comprise a diverse society.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained for its historical significance, literary quality and long-lasting popularity, 11/18/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
The Big Book of Hell by Matt Groening (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about the material's suitability for children.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 7/27/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Daddy's Roommate by Michael Willhoite (Juvenile) (3 separate challenges)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book presents a picture of misguided morality and deviate living; that the book promotes a homosexual lifestyle as acceptable and should be removed.  Another user suggested that the book be located in a separate section and not featured in a special kit of materials about families.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 11/18/92; 12/7/92; 6/17/93.  Letters sent; no further appeals filed.
Do Not Disturb Any Further by John Callahan (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about the material's suitability for children.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 7/27/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Fade by Robert Cormier (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book is unsuitable for junior high students; recommended reclassification for use by senior high students.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Book retained without classification changes, 7/27/92.  Letter sent; offered assistance of librarians in selecting material for junior high readers. No further appeal filed.
Frenzy (Video)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about explicit nature of video in terms of nudity and violence.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Video retained as example of one of Alfred Hitchcock's most important works, 11/5/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
The Gay Agenda (Video)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the video is a distorted piece of political propaganda which does not give user good information on gay lifestyles; questioned quality of cataloging; suggested labeling for explicit content.
Summary of events:  Staff review process.  Reviewed cataloging of similar videos.  Cataloging corrected to provide consistent subject headings; video retained without labeling, 3/9/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Heather Has Two Mommies by Leslea Newman (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book presents a picture of misguided morality and deviate living.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 11/18/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Just Out (Newspaper)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about inclusion of photographs of homosexual men; articles are not respectful towards those who are not homosexual.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Newspaper continues to be distributed as a free item, 10/23/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Magic's Price by Mercedes Lackey (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about homosexual content of book; suggested reclassification to adult.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained without reclassification, 11/13/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
The New Joy of Gay Sex by Charles Silverstein (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about homosexual content.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 3/15/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Raging Bull (Video)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about the effect of language (filthy) and sexual scenes on young viewers; requested a rating scheme for video collection.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Video retained, 9/21/92.  No rating scheme implemented.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Sex by Madonna (Adult) (5 separate challenges)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed over spending public or private money on pornographic material; threatened refusal to donate money to the library; threatened refusal to vote for library levy unless book is removed.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 11/16/92; 12/8/92; 1/4/93 (2); 5/7/93.  Letters sent; no further appeals filed.
Sex For One by Betty Dodson (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book promotes homosexuality, and is pornographic.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 9/8/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
The Terminal Man (Video)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about explicit nature of video in terms of nudity and violence.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Video retained as a critically regarded example of film science fiction, 11/5/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
The Winning Kick (Video)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that children will imitate actions on the video, which may cause injury to others.
Summary of events: Staff review process.  Video retained, 7/17/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
 
Salem Public Library, Salem
The Goats by Brock Cole (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about references to an unclothed adolescent girl, and an adolescent boy looking at a centerfold.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 3/31/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
Those Other People by Alice Childress (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about amount of profanity, and equation of racism against African-Americans with discrimination against homosexuals (homosexuality considered an acquired, deviant trait).
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 10/5/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
 
Tillamook County Library, Tillamook
Daddy's Roommate by Michael Willhoite (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed over portraying homosexuality as normal. 
Summary of events: Preceding the statewide election on Ballot Measure 9 that would have limited equal rights protection for homosexuals, 34 individuals submitted reconsideration forms for this title.  Because the actions of the individuals appeared to have been coordinated as a group effort, the Library Board chose to handle the issue as one incident.  Subsequently, 45 individuals submitted "compliment forms," supporting the library's ownership of the book. Board review process. Book retained, 11/13/92.  Letters sent; no further appeal filed.
The Dancing Skeleton by Cynthia DeFelice (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that after the main character's husband dies, she shows disrespect; also that children might think a person could "come back" after death.
Summary of events: Staff review process. Book retained, 7/12/93.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
To Hell With Dying by Alice Walker (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed over use of word "hell" in title.
Summary of events: Board review process. Book retained, 11/13/92.  Letter sent; no further appeal filed.
 
Challenges in School Library Media Centers
 
Beaverton School District, Beaverton
The Boy Who Lost His Face by Louis Sachar (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed about amount of profanity; suggested book be removed from all elementary school libraries.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Book retained, 3/31/93.
Night Chills by Dean Koontz (Young Adult)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed about sexual and violent content for middle school readers.
Summary of events: Committee review process.   Committee recommended that book was inappropriate for grades 6 - 8.  Book removed, 4/20/93.
 
Bend Senior High School, Bend
Annie On My Mind by Nancy Garden (Young Adult)
The Arizona Kid by Ronald Koertge (Young Adult)
The David Kopay Story by David Kopay (Adult)
Hey Dollface by Deborah Hautzig (Young Adult)
Partridge's Slang English by Eric Partridge (Adult)
Summary of objections:  An individual member of the Oregon Citizens Alliance requested removal of 5 books; concern expressed about the homosexual content of the books (glamorize and approve of immoral sex); concerns about drug issues; that the dictionary teaches children to use vulgar, useless expressions. Suggested books be removed. (See also Deschutes County Library challenges.)
Summary of events:  Committee review process.  Committee recommended that books be retained. Books retained in decision by School Board, 7/27/93.
 
Canyonville School, Canyonville
YM (Young Adult Periodical)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that material in the magazine is not appropriate for upper elementary school library.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended restricting access to magazine; will attempt to find a suitable replacement.  Magazine restricted in decision by School Board, 1/20/93.
 
Cedar Ridge School and Sandy Elementary School, Sandy
All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book gives children mixed messages because it contains foul language that they are not allowed to use in school; recommended editing by expurgation.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Book retained without expurgation, 4/30/93.  Letter sent.
 
Colonel Wright Elementary School, The Dalles
Halloween ABC (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed that the theme of the book is witchery and that the format is misleading; suggested removal of book.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended reclassification.  Book reclassified from picture book to poetry section in decision by School Board, 12/10/92.
 
Glendale Elementary School, Glendale
Horrorgami by Richard Saunders and Brian Macne (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book's illustrations could be frightening for younger readers.
Summary of events: School Board decision.  Book removed, 3/9/93.  A group of 20 teachers expressed concern that the Board did not follow established policy for the review of books.  The Board agreed to develop new policies and procedures for the review of challenged library materials since the existing policy deals only with instructional materials.  Decision to remove book upheld by Board, 4/20/93.
 
Hillsboro Elementary, Hillsboro
More Scary Stories To Tell in the Dark by Alvin Schwartz (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed about content and illustrations.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be reclassified from fiction to folklore section.  Book reclassified in decision by School Board, 12/14/92. 
 
La Pine Elementary School, La Pine
The Egypt Game by Zilpha Keatley Snyder (Juvenile) (2 separate challenges)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book is based on the occult, that it teaches Egyptian culture and religious beliefs, that a young child disobeys an adult, and that the book encourages dangerous and illegal activities.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.   Book retained in decision by School Board, 4/13/93.
Pinkerton, Behave! by Steven Kellogg (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the book is too scary for kindergarten students because a burglar comes into the house and points a gun at the mother.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.  Book retained in decision by School Board, 4/13/93.
 
McBride Elementary School, St. Helens
The View From the Cherry Tree by Willo Davis Roberts (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the language is offensive (cat named S.O.B.), the book is violent and gruesome, and shows a negative, disrespectful attitude toward an older character.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the cover be removed from the hard cover copy, that use be restricted to mature 5th & 6th graders, and that the book be removed from circulation for remainder of school year.  Book restricted and other recommendations upheld in decision by School Board, 3/18/93.
 
Mountain View High School, Bend
Night Chills by Dean Koontz (Adult)
Summary of objections:  Concern expressed that book is not appropriate for high school students because it is pornography, smut.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended book be placed on "restricted" checkout list.  Book retained in final decision by School Board, 10/13/92.
 
Powell Valley Elementary School, Gresham
Gnomes by Wil Huygen (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed about content: nudity, sexual references, poor health habits (wine drinking and pipe smoking), cruelty by gnomes to other creatures.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Book restricted to "adult" shelf, 6/1/93.
 
Salem-Keizer Public Schools, Salem
Halloween ABC by Eve Merriam (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed about satanic references and violence in three of the book's poems.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.  Book retained in decision by School Board, 3/9/93.
Outside Over There by Maurice Sendak (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that the pictures of goblins kidnapping a baby may cause nightmares and arouse children's fears that the same thing could happen to them.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.  Book retained in decision by School Board, 1/26/93.
Ramona the Brave by Beverly Cleary (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concern expressed that Jesus' name is used in vain five times when character named Beezus is taunted because her name rhymes with Jesus.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.  Book retained in decision by School Board, 6/8/93.
 
Sisters Junior/Senior High School, Sisters
Akbar & Jeff's Guide to Life by Matt Groening (Adult)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed that the book lacks educational value, shows disrespect for authority, and uses profanity.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended that the book be retained.  Book retained in decision by School Board, 4/12/93.
 
Washington Elementary School, Pendleton
Nightmares: Poems To Trouble Your Sleep by Jack Prelutsky (Juvenile)
Summary of objections: Concerns expressed that the material is violent and scary and could cause nightmares, and that the book does not teach good healthy morals.
Summary of events: Committee review process.  Committee recommended restrictions on use.  Book restricted, 2/10/93.
 
Six Year Overview
 
The following is an overview of the 259 challenges against library materials in Oregon, based on the data reported since the establishment of the Clearinghouse in May, 1987.  The Clearinghouse cautions against using the data as an absolute picture of the level of attempts to limit intellectual freedom.  Publicizing Clearinghouse services to libraries in Oregon still results in data being reported from libraries that have never done so previously.
 
Figure 1 illustrates the number of challenges in public libraries and the number of challenges in school libraries.  Over 6 years, the Clearinghouse collected information about 160 challenges to public library materials, and 99 challenges to school library materials.
(Insert figure 1)
 
In the past, citizens have challenged materials designated for children and young adults more than materials for adults.  This year, because so many adult materials about homosexuality were challenged, a marked change can be noted.  Since 1987, there were 173 challenges concerning materials for children and young adults, and 86 concerning materials for adults.  Figure 2 illustrates whether challenges each year were against materials for children and young adults, or against materials for adults.
(Insert Figure 2)
 
Figure 3 classifies the objections to materials each year into broad categories.  Often multiple objections are cited against materials but the chart illustrates only one major objection for each challenge.  The chart indicates that while the number of challenges related to graphic sexual content or objectionable language has remained at a fairly constant level since the early years of the Clearinghouse, the number of challenges related to homosexual content has soared in 1992-93.
(Insert Figure 3)
 
Figure 4 illustrates the final outcome in each challenge: whether the materials were retained without restriction in each library, reclassified to a different age group or subject section in the library, restricted to a certain age group or restricted to access only with parental permission, removed from the library, or replaced with a similar item on the same subject or a new edition of the same title.  Transferring materials from one library in a district to another library is classified as a removal in this chart.  In 85% of the challenges (219 times), the materials were retained on library shelves with no restrictions.  Materials were removed from library shelves only 19 times, or in 7% of the incidents.  The Clearinghouse views the ratio of retention decisions to removal decisions as evidence that Oregon library staff, board members, and other citizens value the principles of intellectual freedom in libraries.
(Insert Figure 4)
 
Educational and Cooperative Activities
 
The Clearinghouse continues to respond to requests to consult about policies and procedures that uphold intellectual freedom in libraries, to present workshops on this topic, and to provide information about challenged materials in libraries.  The Clearinghouse regularly reports information about materials challenged in Oregon libraries to national organizations, such as the American Library Association, and People for the American Way, and cooperates with statewide groups concerned with intellectual freedom issues, such as Oregon Library Association, Oregon Educational Media Association, Oregon Department of Education, Oregon Reading Association, Oregon Education Association, and the Oregon chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union, among others.
 
In 1993, The Center for the Book at the Oregon State Library renewed activities toward achieving its purpose: to stimulate public interest in books, reading and libraries.  The Center for the Book is pleased to announce that the Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse is now a project of the Center for the Book.
 
Equally exciting are new partnerships forged with Pacific Northwest Booksellers Association, whose financial support contributed to the publication of this report, and Dennis and Linny Stovall at Media Weavers, whose publishing expertise and interest in intellectual freedom help bring this report to the attention of thousands of readers in the Pacific Northwest.
 
Assistance with data organization and reviews about materials provided by: Val Vogt, Judyth Leifheit, Stana Smith, and Bob Thornhill.
 
Index to Challenges Reported Between 1987 and 1993
The index is organized alphabetically by the title of the challenged material.  The name of the library in which the challenge occurred follows the title.  The final decision made concerning the challenge is indicated.  The annual report where further information can be found about each challenge is listed in the right hand column.  Search for details in each annual report under the name of the library.  "Call for info." is used for challenges submitted after an annual report was published.  The Clearinghouse can provide the information about these challenges.