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Abstract XXIII

Tsunami Design Criteria

Tsunami Design Criteria for Coastal Infrastructure: A Case Study for spencer Creek Bridge, Oregon

The load effects on a coastal bridge due to the impact of a tsunami wave were developed.  Three Cascadia Fault rupture scenarios were considered using the Cornell model and the FVWAVE model to generate the waves for each scenario.  The FVWAVE model for the worst case rupture scenario was used to develop the load effects.    Fluid-structure interaction analysis was conducted with the computational mechanics software LS-DYNA to create a time-history of the lateral and uplift pressures on the bridge deck.  From the pressure data, a time-history of the lateral and vertical reaction forces on the columns was plotted.  The computations were conducted in two dimensions, but work will continue for three dimensional modeling that will incorporate the applied pressures on the columns.

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Bailey Method

Investigation of the Bailey Method for the Design and Analysis of Dense-Grade HMAC Using Oregon Aggregates
Historically Oregon has specified gradations for dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) using a combination of broadband limits and recommended “ideal” gradations.  The recent adoption of SuperPave™ and Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) technology has created new criteria for selecting gradations.  This study evaluated a method of gradation design and analysis called the Bailey Method.  The method uses specific ratios developed for aggregates in Illinois.    The research involved using the Bailey Method to design and evaluate Oregon specific aggregate blends.  Specimens were compacted and tested using the gradations developed under the Bailey Method. Finally, rut testing was performed on those mixture specimens. 
The study recommended that a modified Bailey Method analysis should be used as an additional tool to develop and select trial blends for the design of dense-graded mixes.  The study noted that the Bailey Method design process led to extremely fine mixes not common in Oregon. Additional sieves were recommended to be included to allow for the development of additional ratios. 

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Transportation and Environment

Transportation and the Environment: A Research Agenda for Oregon 

In February 2006 Oregon State University hosted a workshop — Transportation and the Environment: Linking Researchers, Transportation Providers and Industry — attended by nearly 50 participants representing transportation providers, industry leaders, and academic researchers for the specific purpose of creating a transportation and the environment research agenda. The participants discussed needs and opportunities in the areas of ecology and natural systems, land-use, planning and performance measures, emerging technologies, and environmental and socioeconomic relationships, Key needs and opportunities were identified, and an attempt was made to categorize the needed research.
Among the needs and opportunities for transportation and the environment research, the following ideas rose to the top during the workshop:

• Developing integrated decision-support systems;
• Identifying, developing, and testing opportunities in green infrastructure (including the localization of industries, such as clustering transportation industries, construction material use, and use of recycled materials);
• Developing a process for systematically repairing or replacing culverts within watersheds or ecoregions; and
• Identifying opportunities to study the relationships between transportation and the environment within the context of the development of new cities and community developments in Central and Northern Oregon.
The authors recommend that the new Oregon University Transportation Center play a central role to continue and expand the momentum of this proposed research agenda, to help fulfill its potential, and to allow ii to be relined and matured as collaborative partnerships grow and needs and opportunities present themselves.

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Animal Vehicle Crash

Animal Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology Phase I: Review, Design & Implementation
Animal-vehicle collisions affect human safety, property and wildlife. The number of these types of collisions has increased substantially over the last decades. This report describes the results of a project that explored the prospects for a relatively new mitigation measure to reduce animal-vehicle collisions: animal detection systems. Animal detection systems use high tech equipment to detect large animals when they approach the road. Once a large animal is detected, warning signs are activated urging drivers to reduce the speed of their vehicles, be more alert, or both. Lower vehicle speed and increased alertness may then lead to fewer and less severe collisions with such animals as deer (Odocoileus sp.), elk (Cervus elaphus) or moose (Alces alces). This report documents Phase I of the project (October 1999 - December 2005). The report identifies existing animal detection system technologies and their vendors; describes the selection of two experimental detection systems and their installation at two field sites; documents the experiences with planning and design, installation, operation and maintenance; documents test results on the reliability of the two systems; documents system acceptance; and provides advice for the future development and application of animal detection systems.
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LRFR Live Load

Calibration of LRFR Live Load Factors Using Weigh-In-Motion Data
The Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) code for load rating bridges is based on factors calibrated from structural load and resistance statistics to achieve a more uniform level of reliability for all bridges.  The liveload factors in the LRFR code are based on load data thought to be representative of heavy truck traffic nationwide.  However, the code allows for recalibrating liveload factors for a jurisdiction if weigh-in-motion data of sufficient quality and quantity are available.  The Oregon Department of Transportation is implementing customized liveload factors based on the analysis described in this report.  The relatively low liveload factors obtained in the Oregon calibration are a logical outcome of the regulatory and enforcement environment in Oregon.
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Electric Heating

Electric Heating of I-84 in Ladd Canyon, Oregon

When highway grades in mountainous areas and superelevation on curved sections are combined with adverse winter weather conditions, these sections of highway can become particularly hazardous for large truck traffic.  This report covers the design and installation of a system of electric heating cables in a problem section of interstate highway in eastern Oregon. The area has winter weather conditions severe enough to cause treacherous traction conditions in spite of treatment with sand and magnesium chloride.  The heating system covers a bridge deck that transitions to a steep uphill grade while making a superelevated turn and continues for 7,700 ft. (2,347 m) up the incline.  A section of the report discusses problems with the system and planned upgrades and changes.

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Diagonally-Cracked Girders

Capabilities of Diagonally-Cracked Girders Repaired with CRFP

The technique of using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) for strengthening conventionally reinforced concrete (CRC) girders in flexure is well understood, but strengthening girders for shear is a newer application and less data are available.  A literature review and survey were conducted to document the state of understanding and experience with respect to using CFRP for shear reinforcement of CRC girders.  A laboratory investigation using full-size T- and inverted T-girder specimens with diagonal (shear) cracks was conducted to investigate the shear capacity improvement due to CFRP reinforcement and the effect of cyclic loading on CFRP shear strengthening.  National and international code provisions for the design of CFRP in shear were used to compare the predicted shear capacity with the experimental results.  An example application was included for using external CFRP strips to strengthen a bridge girder.
            Strengthening with carbon CFRP strips provided a significant increase in load capacity and stiffness compared to unrepaired beams, and the improved capacity was maintained even after being exposed to the equivalent of twenty years of traffic-induced fatigue.  At high load levels prior to failure, progressive debonding of multiple strips provided a clear, visual warning of distress.
            The ACI 440 methodology provided a reasonably simple approach for shear capacity prediction of RC girders with externally bonded CFRP shear reinforcing for T-beams and is recommended for design.  However, the ACI 440 method was unconservative where the CFRP strips terminate in the flexural tension zone.  To provide a consistent level of reliability between T- and inverted T- conditions, the CFRP stress should be reduced by a factor of 2 for conditions when the CFRP strip is terminated in the flexural tension zone.
              Placement of at least one CFRP strip across the diagonal crack with an anchorage length of at least one-half the height of the web is critical.  An equation for strip layout is presented.  In addition, girder shear strength can be increased using a targeted repair approach, applying CFRP material only to key critical sections rather than over the entire member. Thus, better economy may be achieved by judiciously applying CFRP materials just to those sections that are understrength for shear.

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Crash Reduction Factors

Update and Enhancement of ODOT's Crash Reduction Factors

Appropriate selection of cost-effective countermeasures for highway safety improvement projects requires an estimate of the safety effects of alternative designs.  The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), like many agencies, makes these estimates using crash reduction factors (CRFs).  Since the development of ODOT’s original database in the early 1990s, there have been substantial methodological improvements in the evaluation of engineering countermeasures that have resulted in a wealth of new published research.  This study provided a comprehensive update to ODOT’s CRFs database.  The CRFs were updated via a thorough review and quality assessment of recent literature and input from an expert advisory group.  Results will be incorporated into ODOT’s safety project analysis tools and will be processed and disseminated through ODOT’s regional offices and other local agencies using an interactive web page.  The CRF website will allow users to search interactively for effective countermeasures for a particular highway safety improvement project based on key parameters and directly accessing the literature review database.  This report provides a summary of national and international concurrent and complementary research, discusses the methodology used to review CRFs, and outlines development of an interactive web page.

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Speed, Ranking, Methodologies

Comparison of Identification and Ranking Methodologies for Speed-Related Crash Locations
Over 60,000 crashes were reported on the Oregon state highway system from 2000–2002.  Of these, speed was a primary causal factor in 27% of total crashes and 36% of all fatal crashes.  Excessive speed is a driver behavior that can be influenced by a wide variety of countermeasures.  However, different methods for analyzing crash data often result in setting different priorities for safety improvements.  The state of Oregon currently does not have a developed methodology for prioritizing locations for review of countermeasure deployment.  When making decisions about countermeasure deployment with limited resources, it is important they be allocated to locations that will result in the greatest impact.  The objective of this study was to improve the procedures used to select locations for speed-related safety countermeasures.  The report includes a literature review focused on the relationship between speed and crashes, as well as past research on speed reduction techniques.  An analysis of speed-related crash data indicated that a number of variables such as ice, curves, and others are overrepresented in speed crashes.  Based on these findings, the study then developed and compared alternate ranking methods for speed/ice crash locations, including a unique refinement of the rate quality control (RQC) method, using climate data that helps identify road segments that exhibit statistically significant high speed/ice crash patterns.  The results of the method were highlighted with a case study of identified highway sections using a new zonal RQC.  To demonstrate the feasibility of this analysis technique, the top 20 sites identified by the refined screening technique were reviewed for possible countermeasures.

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Advanced Curve Warning

Field Evaluation of the Myrtle Creek Advanced Curve Warning System 
 As part of a larger study focusing on determining optimum countermeasures for speed related crashes, this report presents the results of a quantitative and qualitative before and after evaluation of a dynamic curve warning system deployed at one site on northbound and southbound Interstate 5 in Myrtle Creek, Oregon. The system displays directed messages on two dynamic message signs to drivers based on the detected speed of approaching vehicles. For the evaluation, three measures of effectiveness were selected: 1) the change in mean speed for passenger cars and commercial vehicles; 2) the change in the speed distribution for both passenger cars and trucks; and 3) public response to the dynamic message signs. Speed samples were taken of vehicles with a laser ranging and detection device, recording both speed and distance information over seven days – four in the before period and three in the after period. The quantitative evaluation indicated that the advanced curve warning system was effective in reducing the mean speeds of passenger cars and trucks by approximately 3 mph for the southbound direction and 2 mph for the northbound direction. After the system was installed, the distribution of vehicle speeds was statistically different with a lower number of vehicles in the higher speed bins. Crash reduction impacts of the system have not yet been evaluated, as the system was only recently installed. Intercept surveys of motorists at nearby rest areas revealed a positive perception of the system. Overall, the results of the evaluation indicate that the advanced curve warning system is effective.

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Traffic Impact Studies

Best Practices for Traffic Impact Studies
For many years there have been concerns that some traffic engineers may approach traffic impact studies with an eye toward assisting developers expedite their development approval rather than delivering an unbiased evaluation of the impact of the development on the surrounding traffic system. Without unbiased studies, agencies are not able to make wise decisions to preserve the capacity of the infrastructure.  Alternately, some agencies may also misinterpret the data from traffic impact analyses, resulting in overcharging of developers by imposing requirements for transportation improvements and conditions that are simply not warranted.   The goals of this research project were to examine decisions being made from traffic impact studies and to develop a set of best practices to supplement existing guidelines for developing and reviewing traffic impact studies.  The research project selected and analyzed 12 case studies to compare post development traffic conditions to the traffic impact study forecasts of post implementation traffic conditions.  Results of these comparisons were mixed.  Best practices were identified for the following areas: land use code selection and application; pass-by trip reduction assumptions; seasonal variations; evaluation of other modes; analysis software; regional demand model verse growth rates; future year analysis; and safety.

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Evaluation on Deicer Application

Evaluation of Deicer Applications on Open Graded Pavements
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) winter maintenance practices include plowing, sanding, and applying winter anti-icing/deicing liquids.  These activities are performed on dense-graded as well as open-graded pavements.  During the winters of 2002 and 2003, several accidents occurred on ODOT highways constructed with open-graded pavement, after winter maintenance chemicals had been applied.  The people involved in these accidents believed that the application of deicers on the surface of the road may have reduced the friction of the surface, creating a hazardous traction condition.  The scope of this research was to study the effects of liquid magnesium chloride on open-graded pavements. 
Four sections on two different highways in Oregon were selected to be skid tested under three conditions: 1) No   deicer application; 2) after a deicer application rate of 15 gallons/lane mile; and 3) after a deicer application rate of 30 gallons/lane mile.  The results of the skid tests were plotted and compared for any notable changes in friction.  It was found that the application of deicer on either type of pavement at either application rate appeared to have little if any effect on the Friction Number (FN).  The Friction Numbers obtained in the skid tests were also compared with those recommended in an FHWA study, and they turned out to be well above the FHWA recommended FN values.  Due to the difficulty in controlling for variables, additional study is recommended, perhaps in a lab or in a location where the researches can maintain more control over the variables.

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Inlaid Pavement Markings

Evaluation of Inlaid Durable Pavement Markings in an Oregon Snow Zone
The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) evaluated the use of inlaid durable pavement markings within a snow zone.  Three different durable pavement marking products were installed and evaluated:  Dura-Stripe®, a methyl methacrylate; Permaline®, an alkyd based thermoplastic; and, 3M Stamark Series 380I Tape, a preformed tape.  Each product was applied, at various thicknesses, into a 4 in (102 mm) wide slot ground to various depths.  The slot depths were: 250, 180 and 125 mil (6.35, 4.57 and 3.18 mm).  The material thickness was varied to achieve a recess from the surface of the pavement of 30 and 60 mil (0.76 and 1.52 mm) below the surface and 10 mil (0.25 mm) above the surface of the pavement.  Some sections of the test deck were installed using ODOT’s existing specification of a 250 mil (6.35 mm) deep slot completely filled with material and top coated with reflective beads. 
After each winter maintenance season the test sections were evaluated based on durability and retroreflectivity.  This report summarizes the performance of the test sections after two years in-service.  Recommendations about the future use of inlaid durable pavement markings in snow zones are made, including slot and material depth, and material type.  A proposed standard for inlaid durable pavement markings is also presented.

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Asphalt Mix Characterization

Asphalt Mix Characterization Using Dynamic Modulus and APA Testing 
 This final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing.
One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-graded hot mix asphalt mixes.  Gyratory compacted specimens were prepared using a single aggregated source and gradation and for binder grades.  after coring and sawing-specimens were tested following AASHTO TP 62-03.  Differences in mix design versus field compacted air voids were investigated for typical surface-course mixes and mixes proposed for use in rich base-course mixes in long-life pavements.  Master curves were developed for all combinations (sixteen) and made available for ODOT pavement design engineers.  Laboratory results did not compare well with the dynamic modulus values predicted using the regression-based equation available in the NCHRP Project 1-37A final report.
The other phase of the research evaluated Asphalt Pavement Analyzer test results on six ODOT projects that exhibited premature permanent deformation.  For three of the six projects, suitable aggregates and binder were available to replicate the field mixes.  Results were mixed, but it appeared that a 5.0 mm limiting criterion may be suitable for the design phase of mix evaluation.  Additional testing was recommended.

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Transportation Planning Measures

Transportation Planning Performance Measures
Oregon transportation plans, including the statewide Oregon Transportation Plan, and current regional transportation plans for the Portland, Salem, Eugene, and Medford metropolitan areas, contain some policy areas that are not adequately addressed by performance measures.  These include policies related to the following: balance and adaptability; economic vitality; safety and security; environmental justice; land use compatibility; and quality of life. This research, while acknowledging the importance of assessing current system performance, focuses on performance measures that can also employ model forecast data for evaluating future plan alternatives.
To address some of the deficiencies and to better address other plan policies, this research developed and tested six performance measures. The Urban Mobility Measures and Freight Delay Costs used performance measures developed by others and extended them for use in Oregon plans.  The Transportation Cost Index represents a novel approach to measuring accessibility and to address, in part, issues related to balance, environmental justice, land use compatibility, and quality of life.  The Percent of Market Basket Accessible by Non-auto Modes and the Auto Dependence Index measures are designed to address issues related to automobile reliance in the Oregon Transportation Planning Rule.  The Road Network Concentration Index represents a novel approach to measuring transportation system security and efficiency.  Other potential performance measures were considered but dropped because current models do not generate the appropriate data.
The results of testing and analysis indicate that the Urban Mobility Measures and the Freight Delay Costs could be implemented immediately in Oregon.  The others could be implemented soon following further refinement.  Further research is recommended into policies related to the following: balance, particularly regarding transportation investments; safety, focusing on the influence of long range planning decisions; reliability; and other aspects of economic vitality. 

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Flocculants and Environment

Assessing the Effect. and Environmental Impacts of Using Natural Flocculants to Manage Turbidity
The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of using chitosan as a natural flocculant to control turbidity during in-stream construction work.  A series of field tests in Oak Creek, Corvallis, OR were conducted in order to test the effectiveness for turbidity control and the environmental impacts of applying chitosan directly into a stream environment.  No significant removal was obtained with chitosan doses up to 0.5 mg/L under the conditions tested, mostly due to high pH of the creek and other unfavorable water quality parameters.  Water quality analysis for total organic carbon, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and biochemical oxygen demand showed that chitosan does not adversely impact the aquatic environment at low doses. 
Due to the inconclusiveness of the field test data, a series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan under controlled conditions, as well as its responses to different test conditions, e.g. pH, initial turbidity, chitosan dose and sediment type.  The bench scale tests were conducted using water collected from Oak Creek and a standard jar tester.  It was found that flocculation efficiency depends strongly on sediment type.  However, the most critical factor that determines the effectiveness of chitosan seems to be an unidentified water quality parameter, which is likely related to the organic matter in the stream.

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Impacts on Interchanges

Comprehensive Plan Amendment Impacts on Interchanges in Oregon
 This report examines the effects of amendments to local comprehensive plans on interchange performance on the Oregon highway system.  Plan amendments over a 15-year period in Oregon, resulting in changes to industrial or commercial land use, were reviewed to identify those that occurred within one mile of an interchange.  regression analysis was then performed to estimate the impact of nearby plan amendments on subsequent interchange ADT.  Plan amendments were found to have a substantial ADT effect on rural interchanges, but their incidence was very limited.  In urban core areas, the estimated effect of plan amendments was negligible, possibly due to interchange congestion or effective land use planning.  In urban fringe areas, plan amendments were estimated to count for about 5 percent of the subsequent interchange ADT, equivalent to about two years of the design life of these facilities.  Case studies involving plan amendments activity over time near six interchanges revealed that traffic impacts were rarely identified by local planning jurisdictions and that the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) was rarely involved in the review process.  Recent changes in transportation planning and programming requirements will result in greater consideration of development activity in interchange areas.  Interchange area management plans are now required in cases of interchange construction or improvement.  Changes in the Department of Land Conservation and Development's Transportation Planning Rule also provide for direct involvement of ODOT in the review of plan amendment in interchange areas.

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Dynamic Revetments

Dynamic Revetments for Coastal Erosion in Oregon
Gravel beaches have long been recognized as one of the most efficient forms of “natural” coastal protection, and have been suggested as a form of shore protection.  “Cobble berms,” “dynamic revetments” or “rubble beaches” involve the construction of a gravel beach at the shore, in front of the property to be protected.  These structures are effective in defending properties because the sloping, porous cobble beach is able to disrupt and dissipate the wave energy by adjusting its morphology in response to the prevailing wave conditions.  Dynamic revetments are much easier and cheaper to construct than a conventional riprap revetment or seawall.  They are also aesthetically pleasing compared with “hard” engineered solutions.  There remain, however, unanswered questions about their design particularly along the high-energy Oregon coast – the sizes and types of gravel to be used, their slopes and crest elevations, the volume of material to be included in the berm, and where the material may be obtained to construct such features.
This study involved an examination of the morphological and sedimentary characteristics at 13 naturally occurring gravel beach study sites along the Oregon coast. Heights of the gravel beaches ranged from 5.7 to 7.1 m (19-23 ft.), while the slopes of the beaches varied from 7.7º to 14.1º.  Mean grain-sizes were found to range from ‑4.9Ø (30 mm) to ‑7.0Ø (128 mm), and were classified as well sorted to moderately well sorted.  However, a comparison of these parameters among stable versus eroding gravel beaches revealed no clear discernable pattern.  A key difference in the stability of the gravel beaches was the volume and width of gravel contained on the beach, with beaches containing larger volumes of gravel (> 50 m3.m-1 (538 ft3.ft-1)) and larger widths (> 20 m (66 ft.)) being the most stable.  Based on this analysis, a crest elevation of ~7.0 m (23 ft.), mean grain-size of no less than ‑6.0Ø (64 mm), and a beach slope of 11º was recommended in future designs of dynamic revetments for the Oregon coast. 
While numerous quarry sites were identified that could supply crushed rock for the building of a dynamic revetment, rounded gravels were more difficult to locate and tended to be located farthest from the coast, increasing the costs that would be incurred to transport the material.

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