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Operations & Maint. Savings for Industry
The following lists provide a starting point for identifying low or no cost energy efficiency opportunities for your facility.  Consult energy analysis guides, equipment service providers, independent energy analysts or your staff to develop more comprehensive opportunities for your facility.  Use or apply these opportunities only after consulting with your technical staff, engineering consultants or expert service providers to determine their appropriateness for your facility.       
        
Equipment Scheduling and Operation
  • Inventory essential equipment operation schedules
  • Post tags with operation schedule for manual systems
  • Identify equipment tolerating variable run time.  Such items include fans, pumps, motors, compressors, boilers, exhaust, conveyance, air compressors, etc....
  • Install mechanical or electronic time clocks
  • Reconnect or adjust mechanical time clocks (locate)
  • Batch convey materials during light load periods
  • Running a 20 horsepower motor 2 hours per day will save $500 ($0.05)
  Maintenance, Controls Adjustment and Tuning
  • Align belts and drives
  • Remove debris from filters and combustion intakes
  • Lubricate moving parts to reduce resistance
  • Adjust pneumatic tools for efficient air use
  • Verify controls operation and equipment sequencing
  • Verify thermal system re-set temperatures
  • Identify set points and optimize temps., schedules
  •  Optimize control signals and cycle time
  • Sequence single or multiple stage equipment such as chillers, air compressors, etc...
 
Unique Process Efficiency 
  • Verify operation schedule and optimize
  • Reduce unused tool operation time
  • Optimize operating temperature, pressure or cfm
  • Identify batch or series capacity adjustment
  • Identify thermal recovery opportunities
  • Reduce pneumatic conveyance run time
  • Evaluate pneumatic replacement with mechanical
  • Recover volatile organic compounds as fuel / VOC value
  • Replace furnace heating with tunable infrared
  • Replace forced air heat with infrared
  • Document how systems operate efficiently
 
Lighting
  • Turn off fluorescent whenever unused
  • Install occupancy sensors on fluorescent
  • Inspect, clean, adjust or replace all photocells
  • Replace all incandescent with fluorescent
    (Install a compact fluorescent, or a T8 or T5 with electronic ballast)
  • Replace any mercury vapor fixtures with fluourescent bi-axial or high pressure sodium
  • Install high pressure sodium or metal halide where consistant run time is required
  • Turn off HID lighting when vacant an hour or more and when warm up is not a concern
  • Wire lighting at windows to shut off for day lighting
  • Evaluate dual level HID lighting for storage areas
  • Shut all lighting off in refrigerated spaces
 
Motors
 
Motors use as much as 60 percent of all industrial electricity.   Energy analysis of motor systems shows that energy savings potential from motor systems is typically distributed as follows:
  • 15 percent energy savings from motor efficiency
    • Replace motors with NEMA rated premium efficiency motors
    • Stocking premium efficiency motors for replacement
  • 20 percent energy savings from motor management
    • Motor and starter maintenance - reduce temperatures...
    • Drive or belt alignment -tighten belts, measure and align drives ...
  • 65 percent energy savings from systems optimization
    • Size motors for air compressors, fan and pumps properly
    • Control motor sequence of operations for meeting staged loads
    • Install adjustable speed drives for motors with significant variability in loads
    • Optimize system controls - dual speed fan control signals,  pump rate response
Boilers
 
Up to 45 percent of all the fuel burned by U.S. manufacturers is consumed to raise steam.  Steam boiler system inefficiency is through losses, boiler blow down, exhaust stack gas loss, condensate and systems vent loss. 
  • Blow down losses
  • Return blow down condensate
  • Optimize blow down for minimum operation
  • Preheat treated makeup water with waste heat
  • Condensate and System Losses
  • Replace failed traps and return all condensate
  • Install properly type and size traps for condition
  • Insulate headers and primary piping
  • Evaluate sidearm for separate system benefits
  • Stack efficiency
  • Adjust combustion bi-annually (summer/winter)
  • Clean boiler tubes
  • Install oxygen trim combustion controls
  • Install improved fuel dispersion controls, nozzles or atomizing burners
  • Install exhaust flue economizers
  • Use waste heat to preheat combustion air
  • Install variable speed controls on induced draft and/or over fire air  fans
  • Replace jack shaft excess air dampers with servo controls
  • Install fuel and air mixture controls with servo controls
Thermal Distribution Efficiency Opportunities
  • Insulate all steam, hot or chilled water pipe
  • Insulate flanges and valves
  • Locate condensate tanks and recover to boiler
  • Identify return temperature control operations
  • Determine load schedules and optimize capacity
  • Ensure steam mains are drained, and air vented
  • Evaluate systems for pressure drops and resize
  • Verify brackets for pipe expansion and contraction
 
 
Air Compressors
 
Leakage (%) = [(T x 100)/(T+t)] where: T=on-load time (minutes)               t=off-load time (minutes) no tools are operating 1/16" leak = $ 500/ yr at $0.05 per kWh 1/8" leak = $2,000 1/4" leak = $8,000
  • Verify sequence of operation for multiple compressors
  • Inspect and clean inlet filter cartridges
  • Drain traps and clean out debris, check operation
  • Inspect compressor lubricant level daily
  • Change lubricant and filter per manufacturer specs.
  • Check belts for wear and check/adjust tension
  • Verify that operating temperature is at specification
  • Replace air line filter elements at greater than 2 to 3 psid.
  • Inspect all filter elements at least annually
  • On water-cooled check water quality, flow, temperature
  • Clean or replace heat exchangers as indicated
  • Check lines and repair leaks: joints, fittings, clamps, valves, hoses, disconnects, regulators, filters, lubricators, gauge connections, and end-use equipment
 
Ventilation
  • Reduce exhaust fan run time
  • Schedule pneumatic conveyance in batches
  • Optimize ventilation air for air quality/energy
  • Install variable speed drives and controls on fans
  • Install makeup air at the tool or site
  • Recover waste heat from exhaust air
  • Move tasks to existing mini-environments
  • Shut off tool exhaust ducts when not operating
  • Evaluate exhaust loads for variable system size
 
Refrigeration
  • Verify temperature set points and controls
  • Clean condenser and evaporator coils
  • Identify door operation schedule and minimize opening 
  • Inspect the door seal integrity and maintain or replace when there is a poor seal
  • Operate air curtains only when doors open
  • Verify and optimize refrigerant charge
  • Lubricate and maintain filters on compressor
  • Evaluate refrigerant flow for optimization
  • Evaluate compressor efficiency
  • Lower condenser pressures
  • Raise the system suction pressure
  • Remove oil from evaporators
  • Lengthen intervals between defrost cycles
  • Shorten defrost cycles with frost sensor controls
  • Reduce lighting operation in refrigeration
  • Install dual level lighting in cold storage
  • Evaluate variable speed evaporator fan opportunity
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