|Use abbreviations and acronyms sparingly, only when nothing else works. Do not follow an organization’s full name with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes. If an acronym would not be clear to the intended audience on second reference without this arrangement, do not use it. Use division, program, office, unit, or section rather than program-specific acronyms. Use the project or the initiative rather than project acronyms. DAS is always appropriate on second reference.
Rarely use abbreviations or acronyms in headings.
The current trend is not to use periods in abbreviations. Here are some exceptions: U.S., Ms., Mr., etc., Co., Inc., a.m., p.m., Ph.D.
This entry updated March 2010 to reflect a change in AP style.
To show possession, add an apostrophe and an s to singular words or abbreviations:
DAS promulgates the state's administrative rules.
You can find all of 2017's legislative measures online.
SEIU's negotiators met with the DAS labor group.
To possessive singular nouns ending in s, add 's:
The hostess's invitation arrived late.
The witness's answer was barely audible.
To possessive plural nouns, and to the term "DAS," add only an apostrophe:
DAS' teams worked hard on the project.
All the teams' efforts resulted in success.
Be careful not to confuse possessive adjectives, which do not take apostrophes, with contractions, which do:
PEBB revised its administrative rules.
It's on the web.
Omit the apostrophe from plurals that are not possessive:
Things changed in the 1990s.
All OARs are on the web.
These examples serve as a general guide to capitalization. Also review Internet terms.
|the state of Oregon*
||the Brown administration|
||Governor, Governor's Office (an exception to AP style)|
|state Department of Administrative Services
|state agency, agency, department, division, program, section, unit
||Legislature (lowercase in generic uses, but capitalize when referring to the Oregon Legislature)|
|board, commission, committee, council, work group, team (DAS exception: capitalize Board and Commission for legislatively created Boards and Commissions)
|Executive Branch, Legislative Branch, Judicial Branch (DAS preference is to capitalize branches of government)
||the Secretary of State|
|DAS Director Katy Coba; but, Katy Coba is the director of DAS.
*Minimize use of state of Oregon
. The following choices will describe your meaning more accurately: state government, state agencies, Oregon
Within a paragraph, capitalize the word after a colon if it is a proper name or if it begins a complete sentence. Also review Lists
In a series, omit the comma before the conjunction:
We designed the site for customers, citizens and employees.
Exception: Use a comma if the last item in the series also contains a conjunction:
We received input from legislators, citizens, employees, and business and labor leaders.
Use a comma before a conjunction connecting two independent clauses:
An editor revises the page, and a publisher moves it to the web.
As a general rule, do not use a comma before a conjunction connecting a compound predicate:
I revised the new page and decided not to publish it.
Use a comma to set off a nonrestrictive clause:
We met the deadline, which was last Thursday.
Do not use a comma before a restrictive clause:
We met every deadline that was scheduled.
Also review Time periods and Hyphens.
Use the em dash (--) sparingly in government writing. In most cases, other punctuation will suffice. Uses include seting off a long expression that might otherwise be a parenthetical statement, or to introduce an abrupt change in thought.
Issuing new rules -- a process that some have criticized for its complexity -- has occupied the new director's attention.
In most software applications, two hyphens automatically change to an em dash when typed between two words, with no spaces between the hyphens or the words. DAS adheres to the AP preference, which includes a space on either side of the em dash, as in the example above.
Never add "st," "nd," "rd," or "th" after a date, as in May 5th. May 5 is correct.
Abbreviate months with a specific date:
We met on Jan. 30, 2016.
Do not abbreviate March, April, May, June or July in any case.
Do not abbreviate months with no specific date:
We began operations in January 2015.
Do not enclose the year in commas when naming only the month and year:
We will complete the plan in August 2020.
Enclose the year in commas when naming a specific date:
June 1, 2018, is our target date.
Within documents, use the following approved Serif and Sans Serif fonts. Select a font size that offers reasonable accessibility for the intended audience. For Sans Serif fonts, use no less than 10 points. For Serif fonts, use no less than 11 points.
Sans Serif (use for headings, email, and text to be read online)
Serif (use for paragraph text in printed documents)
Times New Roman
Within webpages, always choose fonts from the ribbon choices offered by the software. (Manually coded fonts may cause issues for website visitors.)
Write statements to avoid gender bias:
Bad: An employee should use his discretion.
Better: Employees should use their discretion.
Best: Employees should use discretion.
Do not use he/she or his/her or any similar combination of gender pronouns.
If necessary, use "their" even in singular references.
An employee must sign their own ballot.
This section updated June 2018.
Do not hyphenate words with prefixes or suffixes:
Exceptions – when the second element is capitalized, when the second element is a figure or to distinguish homonyms:
Many compounds that are spelled open as nouns are hyphenated as adjectives:
at a high level; high-level job
Bring me up to date; distribute an up-to-date report
Compounds that begin with adverbs ending in ly
are spelled open:
highly complex procedure
poorly designed form
Use this structure for serial compound hyphenation:
short- and long-term plans
Commonly used hyphenated words:
agency-wide (but statewide)
co-worker (but coworking)
diversity-related; technology-related; procurement-related
Use the following formats:
e-government, e-commerce and other compounds in which e stands for electronic; but email. Uppercase only in titles or at the beginning of a sentence: E-Government provides online services; the state's E-Commerce program has grown significantly.
login, logon (n); Example: I cannot access the login screen.
log in, log on (v); Example: I log in every day. Don't forget to log on.
World Wide Web, the web, webpage, website, webcam, webcast, webmaster
"Cyber security" (two words) added to this entry December 2019. This preference aligns with the DAS Cyber Security Services program name.
Use parallel construction in all lists. Make introductory statements complete thoughts. Statements must make sense even if the reader ignores bullets or numbered items.
Use the following format for bulleted lists:
- Indent bulleted lists as indicated here.
- Use a closing period at the end of each item in the list whether or not the item is an independent sentence.
- When using sub-bullets, end the introductory statement with a colon, and end sub-bullets with a period, as in the following example:
- First item in the series.
- Second item in the series.
- Last item in the series.
Exception: The closing punctuation at the end of each item in a list of questions should be a question mark.
Semi-colons: Do not use semi-colons as the closing punctuation of list items.
Use numbered rather than bulleted lists in the following three circumstances:
- When the preceding text names a specific number of items in the list that follows.
- When the listed items must follow a specific sequence.
- When the list sets a chronology.
Use the following format for lists in paragraphs. Use numbers (1)
, letters (a)
or neither according to the guidelines above. Use this format sparingly and only for short lists:
The team reviewed the overall processes, including: (1) overall board structure and official charter; (2) board member appointments, including emergency appointments; (3) roles and responsibilities; and (4) daily operations.
This section updated July 2018 to reflect AP style and edited October 2018 for clarity.
Spell out numbers up to and including nine; use figures for 10 and more.
one, eight, nine
10, 21, 105, 2,436
Numbers can be mixed (spelled out and represented by figures) in the same sentence or paragraph.
The directory includes 10 folders, one index, six images and 800 PDF files.
The second and ninth place winners in our division finished 10th and 25th overall.
Avoid beginning sentences with numbers. If this is not possible, spell out numbers that begin a sentence. Years is the lone exception (refer to Time periods
Three hundred and three teachers went on strike.
Sixteen years passed before the brothers spoke to each other.
Forty percent is larger than 30%.
2002 was an eventful year.
Use figures for proper nouns, percentages, page numbers, measurements, decimal fractions, time and very large numbers:
4 feet 7 inches
1.34, 0.5 (decimal fractions less than 1.0 require a leading zero)
This section updated April 2019.
Use hyphens to separate phone numbers, not periods or parentheses.
911 examples: Dial 9-1-1 in an emergency. She made a 911 call.
Use a comma to separate phone numbers from extensions. Abbreviate the word extension with ext. not an x.
541-333-1234, ext. 456
This entry updated December 2017.
With few exceptions, closing quotation marks enclose a sentence’s final punctuation. Always enclose commas and periods inside quotation marks. Two examples of the few exceptions:
Do you believe he said “shut up”?
Don’t tell me “I told you so”!
Use single quotation marks only within quoted material.
Also review Time periods.
Use lowercase and periods:
7 a.m. and 8 p.m. (not 7:00 and 8:00)
from 7 to 8:30 a.m.
When using from or between, use words, not dashes, to denote time of day:
My lunch hour is from noon to 1 p.m.
We will hold interviews between 9 a.m. and 4:30 p.m.
Use noon and midnight. Do not use 12 noon, 12 midnight, 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.
||Use a hyphen with no space between years: 2015-17 (not 2015-2017)|
||Biennium: a period of two years; Oregon state government's fiscal year, which begins July 1 in odd-numbered years and ends 24 months later on June 30|
|Plural references (interchangeable)
Bienniums or biennia
- The department will implement the project during the next two bienniums.
- Electronic government services increased during the last three biennia.
|Not to be confused with...
||Biannual: occurring twice a year|
Use an en dash (–)* with a space before and after periods of time when you might otherwise use "to":
2014 – 2016 were wonderful years. (An exception to the rule that sentences do not begin with figures.**)
The vacation season is June – August.
Meeting time: 1:30 – 3 p.m.
When using from or between, use words, not dashes, to denote periods of time:
The agency launched several improvement projects between 2010 and 2013.
We vacation every year from August to October.
* In most software applications, a hyphen automatically changes to an en dash when a space is added before and after.
** A numeral-and-letter combination may start a sentence: 3D movies are drawing more fans. This joins starting a sentence with the year as the only times when a numeral is OK at the beginning of a sentence.
This section updated July 2018 to reflect AP style.
Addressing USPS Mail >>
Do not use an ampersand in place of and except when it is part of an organization's formal name. On the web, use an ampersand only when template restrictions allow no alternative.
DAS website URL
If you encounter old URLs such as www.das.state.or.us, egov.oregon.gov or cms.oregon.gov, replace them with https://oregon.gov/DAS
Use left justification for most paragraph formats. Text formatted with full justification is difficult to read. One word or two?
Also review Hyphens
bar code online
help desk upload
hot line statewide Slash ( / )
Avoid slashes. Avoid and/or
is generally sufficient.
Use red or brown.
Use red, brown or both.
Avoid overstating a point with a slash, as in these poor examples.
I am the manager/supervisor/boss.
We must develop/expand the program.
Spacing after punctuation
Computers add proportional spacing, one space following punctuation is sufficient. The two-space rule is obsolete. The one-space rule applies to all punctuation: periods, commas, colons, semicolons, exclamation points, question marks and quotation marks.