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SPR 730

Assessment of Copper Removal From Highway Storm Water Runoff Using Fish Bone Meal
Project Coordinator: Matthew Mabey
Research Agency:  Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:  Jeffrey Nason
Start Date for ODOT: April 2011
Completion Date for ODOT:        August 2013
The overarching goal of this project is to identify an efficient and cost effective means of remediating copper in highway stormwater runoff.  Specific research questions include:
1.      What is the “state of science” regarding removal of metals (copper in particular) from highway stormwater runoff?
2.      Is fish bone apatite (or some other identified alternative) a viable technology that could be incorporated into stormwater BMPs?
3.      How do alternative technologies compare with existing best available technologies such as compost?
4.      What are the efficiencies and mechanisms of copper removal by alternative technologies?
5.      How can alternative technologies be integrated into currently accepted stormwater management strategies?
6.      What are the costs and benefits of alternative technologies in terms of water quality and construction and maintenance costs?

Highway stormwater runoff is one source of copper into the surface waters of Oregon, many of which are home to threatened and endangered salmonid species.  The ODOT Best Management Practices (BMPs) with the most robust performance are bioslopes and bioswales, especially with regard to metals removal.  They are implemented wherever practicable.  Bioslopes use a media mix of aggregate, dolomite, perlite and gypsum to reduce dissolved copper from highway runoff through microbiological activity and adsorption.  Research at Washington DOT indicates that bioslopes are capable of reducing dissolved copper from 15-20 µg/L (typical of highway runoff) to 5-7 µg/L.  Design and implementation of these types of BMPs has become an increasingly large part of transportation projects, sometimes contributing 20-25% to the overall project costs.
Even the current best available technologies are not capable of removing copper to the levels which regulators currently consider "no effect" .  Copper acts as an olfactory neurotoxin in salmonids, diminishing olfactory sensitivity and detrimentally influencing behavior.  In research at the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Seattle lab research, olfactory effects were seen at dissolved copper concentrations on the order of 2 µg/L above background levels (< 3 µg/L).  The assumption arising from these studies is that even slight increases in copper concentrations above pre-urbanization development may cause harmful behavioral and sensory effects in salmon.   Even if these extremely low levels are shown to be overly conservative, the improved efficiency of the fish bone meal will likely have benefits in the form of reduced the size (=cost) of the bioslopes and increased longevity.
Phosphate based minerals have been used in a number of instances for remediation of soil and water contaminated with heavy metals including lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper.  Based on preliminary research in Region 1, the addition of fish bone meal to bioslope media mix appears to offer the potential to reduce dissolved copper to background levels (near 2 µg/L at filtration rates of 1 gpm/sq. ft. of fish bone meal media).  This research proposes to characterize and quantify the extent and mechanism of copper removal by fish bone meal to determine whether the preliminary results are sustainable, reproducible, and able to be incorporated into bioslope design.

The research questions listed above will be answered through the completion of four primary tasks: a detailed literature review; bench-scale testing; field testing; and data analysis and reporting.  Specific tasks are outlined below.
Task 1 – Literature Review.  A comprehensive literature review will be completed and provide a foundation for the proposed research, framing this study in the context of what is currently known.  This task will build on the work already completed for the copper speciation project that is nearing completion.  Specific topics for review will include: (1) achievable removal rates and effluent concentrations for BMPs for metals removal from highway runoff; (2) treatment technologies for metals remediation used in other applications (e.g., acid mine drainage, municipal wastewater); and (3) mechanisms of copper removal by fish bone meal, compost, and related compounds such as woody lignin and phosphate rock.
Task 2 – Bench Scale Testing.  On the basis of the literature review, a short list of promising and existing technologies will be identified for further testing.  At a minimum, fish bone meal and compost will be tested.  Bench-scale column tests will be performed using synthetic stormwater and actual stormwater to quantify the extent to which dissolved copper can be removed from solution.  Preliminary variables to be investigated include the concentration of dissolved copper, water quality parameters (pH, ionic strength, the presence of other metals, the presence of organic matter), and filtration rate.  Further tests will examine the stability of the bound copper (i.e., whether or not the copper is susceptible to being released from the media) and the release of phosphate from the fish bone media.  Finally, to the extent possible, research will attempt to characterize the mechanism of copper removal by the various media.
Task 3 – Field Testing.  Results from the bench-scale testing will be used to design a field-scale investigation of the most promising materials.  This task will consist of identification and modification of existing bioslope media filters to include the identified technologies.  Field sites will be selected to allow the comparison of modified and unmodified bioslopes; each site will be set up to collect water quality (e.g., pH, redox-potential) and hydrologic (e.g., rainfall, water level) data, in addition to collecting samples for metals analysis.  Performance of the BMPs will be evaluated on a storm by storm basis and throughout a storm season to quantify changes in the media and examine the mechanisms of copper removal. 
Task 4 – Data Analysis and Reporting.  Results will be used to develop cost curves for bioslopes with and without fish bone meal and/or compost media and evaluate the benefits and costs associated with the addition of fish bone meal to bioslopes.  Furthermore, the findings will be used to produce recommendations for design of bioslopes and media component configurations as well as maintenance issue such as media lifespan.  These results, along with data from the bench and field testing, will be incorporated into an ODOT research report.  The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. 

Quarterly Reports:

 FY 11
 FY 12
FY 13 FY 14
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SPR 732

Comparison of Pelletized Lime with Other Anti-Stripping Additives
Project Coordinator: Norris Shippen
Research Agency:  Oregon State University
Principal Investigator:  David Trejo
Start Date for ODOT: June 2011
Completion Date for ODOT:        November 2013
The goal of the research is to determine if pelletized lime is a viable alternative to polymeric aggregate treatments and liquid anti-stripping additives for improving the resistance of dense-graded HMAC to moisture-induced damage. The principal objective will be to determine the relative effectiveness of pelletized lime, polymeric aggregate treatments, and liquid anti-stripping additives with regard to reducing the moisture sensitivity of dense-graded HMAC.  Both lab-mixed and plant-mixed materials will be evaluated.  A second objective will be to compare unit production costs of mixtures with and without these additives. 
Moisture damage is one of the major distresses that significantly reduces the structural integrity and useful life of hot mixed asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements in Oregon.  For the purposes of reducing the moisture sensitivity of HMAC mixtures, the ODOT Standard Specifications allow the use of asphalt cement additives (e.g., liquid anti-stripping additives) or treatment of damp aggregate with dry, hydrated lime.  In addition, the ODOT Pavement Design Guide indicates that latex polymer treatment of aggregates may be substituted for lime treatment according to the special provisions for a particular project.  Liquid anti-stripping additives are the preferred choice by HMAC producers due to their ease of use, lack of dust, and/or need to add water to the aggregates (1, 2).  However, laboratory and field studies conducted to investigate the effectiveness of lime in HMAC mixtures concluded that it is a superior product in terms of eliminating moisture sensitivity problems in asphalt pavements (3, 4).
The principal disadvantages of using lime powder in the production of HMAC mixtures include the added expense associated with mixing the lime with aggregate in a pug-mill (in Oregon) prior to feeding it into the dryer, difficulty in containing lime dust, and potential threats to the safety and health of workers exposed to the lime dust.  Use of pelletized lime, rather than lime powder, could minimize health risks to workers as well as other fugitive dust issues. It can be added through the RAP collar or into the liquid asphalt, thus avoiding the additional costs associated with mixing dry, powdered lime and damp aggregate in a pug-mill. 

Task 1 – Experiment Plan: This task will involve development of experiment plans for the laboratory and field studies.  It is envisioned for the laboratory study to investigate four anti-stripping additives in combination with two coarse aggregate types, one fine aggregate type, and one binder type and grade.  One type each of powdered lime, pelletized lime, liquid anti-stripping agent, and polymeric aggregate treatment, and two coarse aggregate types (one that has been known to be susceptible to stripping and one that has not), will be considered.  Two control mixtures, one for each coarse aggregate type, will also be included.  Thus, a total of ten mixtures will be investigated during the laboratory study.  The same anti-stripping additives will be used in the field study, but only the coarse aggregate that has been known to be resistant to moisture damage will be utilized.  Thus, a total of five mixtures will be investigated during the field study.  AASHTO T 283 and the ECS/Dynamic Modulus (ECS/E*) test outlined in NCHRP Report 589 (5) will be used for evaluation purposes.  AASHTO T 283 will require six specimens per mixture for a total of 90 test specimens.  Two specimens per mixture will be utilized in the ECS/E* test requiring a total of 30 test specimens.
Task 2 – Laboratory Study: This task will involve executing the experiment plan for the laboratory study.  In doing so, a procedure will firstly need to be developed for batching mixtures with pelletized lime.  Following this, mixture specimens will be batched, mixed, and compacted, and then tested according to AASHTO T 283 and for ECS/E*.  The fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate known to be resistant to stripping will need to be selected based on the aggregates to be used in the field study.
Task 3 – Field Study: This task will involve executing the experiment plan for the field study.  The important aspect of this endeavor will be to combine the different anti-stripping additives with the same coarse and fine aggregates.  Ideally, all mixtures should be produced by a single HMAC producer for a single project.  If this cannot be accomplished for a single project, all mixtures should incorporate the same aggregates and be produced by the same contractor.  The plant-mixed materials will be compacted in the laboratory and then tested according to AASHTO T 283 and for ECS/E*. 
Task 4 – Analysis of Results: This task will involve statistical analyses to determine: 1) the effectiveness of the individual additives in improving resistance to moisture damage; 2) a ranking of the relative effectiveness of the additives; and 3) which evaluation method, AASHTO T 283 or ECS/E*, provides a better assessment of moisture sensitivity.
Task 5 – Production Costs: This task will involve a survey of HMAC producers in Oregon to gather information regarding the cost of producing mixtures with and without the anti-stripping additives investigated in this study.  Assistance from the APAO will be solicited for this effort. 

Quarterly Reports:

 FY 11
 FY 12
FY13 FY 14
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SPR 734

Premature Asphalt Concrete Pavement Cracking
Project Coordinator: Norris Shippen
Research Agency:  Iowa State University
Principal Investigator:  Chris Williams
Start Date for ODOT: June 28, 2011
Completion Date for ODOT:        November 30, 2012
The objectives of the research are to determine the causes of early cracking on the state highway system. The results of the study will be used to modify our pavement design process including modifications to the Pavement Design Guide and Mix Design Guidelines.
Recently ODOT has constructed pavements that have experienced premature cracking within three years of construction. Early cracking allows moisture to penetrate the pavement structure reducing the section’s design life and significantly increasing the life cycle cost. Also within the last several years, design and material changes occurred that may or may not have contributed to the pavement distress. The changes include an increase in the quantity of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) allowed in the wearing surface; the use of binder modifications including acid and polymers; and a shift in mix gyration levels. Construction factors like properties of the produced mix (volumetrics) and placement also play a part of the pavement performance.
National investigations into cracking have identified areas where the cracking is top down versus bottom up. While both are serious, bottom up cracking typically indicates the pavement structure was under designed indicating a need to change structural design practices. Top down cracking, however, may indicate that the material selection process can be fine-tuned. The only means to differentiate between top down versus bottom up cracking is through coring.
The literature has identified several possible causes for early distresses.  For top down cracking, high surface horizontal tensile stress, age hardening and low stiffness upper layer caused by high surface temperatures have been identified as possible causes.  Also for thicker pavements , greater than 6.5 inches, top down cracking can be the dominant form of cracking (1).  For Oregon however, it is unknown which mechanism(s) have contributed to the early cracking distress.

Task 1: Literature Review and State Survey: There is a fair amount of information available that details other early cracking investigations.  A survey would also be developed to collect specific information from transportation agencies about their experience with early cracking.
Task 2: Identification of pavements exhibiting early cracking: Use information from the ODOT pavement management databases to identify top performers and early failures. What are the commonalities for good pavements versus poor pavements?  Investigation will include reviewing pavement designs (inlay, inlay/overlay, and overlay), mix designs and construction history.
Task 3: Field work and laboratory evaluation: After reviewing the data collected in Task 2, formulate a hypothesis as to the nature of the cracking and develop a field work plan to perform sampling and testing of in-service pavements. It is anticipated that six to ten projects will be investigated. Sampling and testing may include deflection testing, coring and lab testing. The deflection testing will provide an estimate of the overall strength of the pavement section; the coring will provide a visual indication of the quality of the pavement and the location of the cracking (top down, bottom up); and the lab testing will provide an assessment of the in place properties of the mix and oil.
Task 4: Analysis and documentation: Compile the results of the information from both the construction history of good and poor pavement performers along with results from the field and lab evaluations to determine the cause(s) of early cracking. Following the analysis, provide a final report documenting the findings and recommend changes to our design process.
Task 5: Implementation: The task would provide guidance as to what changes are needed in our pavement design and/or mix design process and/or standard specifications to insure we are getting long lasting pavements. The recommendations would be incorporated into our Pavement Design Guide and/or Mix Design Guidelines and/or specifications.

Quarterly Reports:

 FY 12
 FY 13
FY 14
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SPR 736

A Corrosion Monitoring System for Existing Reinforced Concrete Structures
Project Coordinator: Steve Soltesz
Research Agency:  Western Transportation Institute
Principal Investigator:  Xianming Shi
Start Date for ODOT: March 2011
Completion Date for ODOT:        June 2013
The goal of this research is to provide a reliable, cost-effective corrosion monitoring system for existing ODOT reinforced concrete structures.
Reinforcement corrosion is a leading cause of premature failure of reinforced concrete and a major concern for concrete structural durability. Concern is greatest in coastal and northern states where these structures are exposed to marine environments or deicing salts respectively, such as in the State of Oregon.
ODOT conducts labor-intensive corrosion surveys of its coastal bridges to identify structures that are expected to require future corrosion mitigation. Because of the time and cost required to conduct these surveys, the corrosion information for coastal bridges is not as complete as desired.  A method of obtaining frequent corrosion data would provide better condition assessment at much lower cost than the periodic hands-on surveys.  In addition, a system that measures real-time corrosion behavior could potentially be used with impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) to adjust the protective current in a way that maximizes anode life.  Unfortunately, available corrosion sensors are not adequate because of operational and data interpretation deficiencies.

Task 1:  Optimize an Integrated Corrosion Sensor  This task will optimize a prototype embeddable corrosion sensor developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI).  The SwRI sensor is a Φ35mm ´ 20 mm cylindrical device that measures chloride concentration, pH, corrosion rate, and concrete conductivity. The sensor can be easily embedded into an existing concrete structure to monitor key parameters of interest. Particular effort will be focused on two aspects of the sensor: 1) optimizing the reliability, durability, and sensitivity of each sensing component to achieve good performance for at least ten years and 2) devising an embedment method that allows the sensor to evaluate an existing structure with minimum disruptive effect. The research team has conceptual ideas on how to address these issues and will conduct the sensor optimization using bench-scale concrete slabs.  In addition, the team plans to add temperature and moisture sensing elements to the sensor package.
Task 2:  Build Data Communication and Collection System  This task will integrate the sensing components with a low-powered wireless system for data acquisition, initial processing, and transmission.  The platform for data handling and communication (motes) was developed at UC Berkeley and implemented by SwRI in other sensor systems.
Task 3:  Develop Methodology for Corrosion Diagnosis and Prognosis Western Transportation Institute (WTI)). Data interpretation (e.g. statistical process control methods and/or artificial neural networks) coupled with sensor signals is powerful in recognizing corrosion patterns as they unfold in real time. This task will develop the method to interrogate the collected sensor data (after normalization and cleansing) to assess the corrosion risk and status of the rebar via pattern recognition and to predict future deterioration states of the concrete and rebar. The actionable information will be presented through an intuitive interface to facilitate asset management and decision-making.
Task 4: Test Pilot-Scale System  This task will test and validate the performance of the overall corrosion monitoring system (including both hardware and software). The sensors will be deployed in a reinforced concrete bridge column to simulate an aging ODOT concrete structure. The column will be seated in a chamber with simulated marine environment, including underwater, splash and atmosphere exposure zones. Concurrently, a sensor system will be deployed on an ODOT bridge to test the system under actual conditions. Tests will also be performed to determine whether impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) zones interfere with the performance of the sensor.  If the sensor is compatible with ICCP, recommendations will be made on how the sensor can be used to control ICCP systems.
Task 5: Final Report The report will incorporate all aspects of the research including a cost estimate and deployment recommendations for ODOT. 

Quarterly Reports:

 FY 11
 FY 12
FY 13 FY 14 FY 15
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SPR 741

Bridge Seismic Retrofit Measures Considering Subduction Earthquakes

Project Coordinator: Joe Li
Research Agency:  Portland State University
Principal Investigator:  Peter Dusicka
Start Date for ODOT: November 2011
Completion Date for ODOT:        September 2014
The goal of the research is for ODOT to have validated effective seismic retrofit measures that
consider the uniqueness of Oregon bridges and the effects of subduction earthquakes.

The majority of Oregon’s bridges were built prior to the current understanding of the regional
seismic risk and did not incorporate design details to withstand a significant earthquake. A
seismic hazard assessment model for Oregon highway routes has shown serious vulnerability to
the transportation network. Seismic retrofits in the state have been limited to Phase 1 retrofits
that provide restrainers for keeping the superstructure in place on the bents. Such retrofit
measures are effective for their intended purpose, but shift the displacement demands onto the
supporting substructure. Effective retrofit measures for the substructure have been developed
based on research for California bridges and seismic events. However, bridges in Oregon were
built differently from those in California, and Oregon is likely to experience a subduction
earthquake whereas earthquakes in California are crustal earthquakes.
The M8.8 subduction earthquake in Chile in 2010 highlighted the differences between a
subduction earthquake and a crustal earthquake. The duration of a subduction earthquake is
longer. Subduction earthquakes may entail significant aftershocks for months. Finally, the
frequency content of the shaking that affects the response of structures can span a wider range
than crustal earthquakes.
The effectiveness of conventional retrofit measures applied to Oregon bridges is uncertain due to
the differences in bridge construction, the underlying assumptions for retrofit design and
Oregon’s situation. Similarly, fragility, which relates the probability of damage to shaking
intensity, is also uncertain. Current research at PSU is investigating the seismic performance of
a representative column and of a single retrofit measure for a crustal earthquake. Results for
additional retrofit designs exposed to subduction earthquakes are needed in order to achieve
accurate output from transportation network models and to have reliable retrofit designs.
Task 1: Analyze records from subduction earthquakes
Task 2: Identify seismic retrofit for bridge bent
Task 3: Validate the effectiveness of the retrofit measures
Task 4: Calibrate numerical model of bridge bent retrofit
Task 5: Develop seismic fragility functions
Task 6: Final Report and Design Recommendations

Quarterly Reports:

 FY 12
 FY 13
FY 14 FY 15
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qtr. 2 qtr. 2​
qtr. 3
 qtr. 4 
qtr. 4

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