The Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act) provides federal transportation programs. ODOT locally administers many of the programs, rolling several into the STIP process.
Here's a helpful spreadsheet from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
Surface Transportation Block Grant Program (STBG)
STBG funds are very flexible. Funds can be used for projects such as hazard elimination, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, planning, and traffic monitoring. They are part of ODOT's STIP process but a portion are sub-allocated by population.
Transportation Alternatives Program (TA funds)
Transportation Alternatives is now a set-aside within STBG. Bike-ped projects including recreational trails and safe routes projects are eligible. Oregon administers TA funds, giving grants to local governments, as part of the STIP's Enhance funds. Grants require a small local match, and vary from $250,000 to $1.4 million. Metro, Eugene-Springfield, and Salem-Keizer MPOs receive a direct allotment of these dollars. TAP funds are 2% of the funds from the Highway Trust Fund, unless a state decides otherwise.
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) program
The CMAQ program is jointly administered by the FHWA and FTA, with projects selected by local jurisdictions in high pollution areas. Bike/pedestrian projects make up a significant portion of the funded projects, which must focus on air quality improvement.
Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP)
The HSIP program focuses on reducing traffic fatalities and injuries; applications must focus on a strategy, activity or project consistent with a State Strategic Highway Safety Plan, and correct or improve a hazardous road location or feature, or address a highway safety problem, including automated enforcement in school zones. Infrastructure and non-infrastructure projects are eligible. Projects require a 10% local match. They are administered through ODOT's STIP.
Federal Lands Access Program (FLAP)/ Federal Lands Transportation Program (FLTP) – both part of FLTTP
The FLTTP program works to improve transportation facilities that provide access to, are adjacent to, or are located within Federal and Tribal lands, with an emphasis on high-use recreation sites. flh.fhwa.dot.gov/programs/flap/or and flh.fhwa.dot.gov/
Section 402 State and Community Highway Safety Grant Program
A jointly run program of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the FHWA, and State Highway Safety Offices, Section 402 funds can be used for safety materials, training, and police patrols.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Capital Funds
FTA capital funds can fund many different types of pedestrian and bicycle improvements, from access to transit to curb cuts to transit-oriented development efforts.
FTA Associated Transit Improvements (ATI) funds
The FTA has a 1% set-aside from its grant programs for "associated transit improvements" for projects helping people get to and use transit.
The Better Utilizing Investments to Leverage Development (BUILD) discretionary grant program (formerly TIGER) is a very competitive pot of funds; a small percentage of funded projects have been bike/pedestrian related. Applications must highlight project benefits to safety, economic competitiveness, state of good repair, livability and environmental sustainability goals.
Recreational Trails Program (RTP)
The RTP is a set-aside under the Transportation Alternatives fund for both motorized and non-motorized trail projects. ODOT currently sends Oregon's RTP funds to the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department for administration.
National Highway Performance Program (NHPP) funds
NHPP funds can be used for a variety of biking and walking improvements, from bike lanes to curb cuts to bike/pedestrian overpasses.
State or Metropolitan Planning
The FHWA offers some funds earmarked just for planning purposes, including bicycle and pedestrian plans.