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Active Bacterial Core Surveillance

The Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) program is a core component of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ABCs) Emerging Infections Programs (EIP), which is a collaboration between CDC, state health departments, and universities. 

Active bacterial core surveillance

On this page:

ABCs Ongoing Surveillance Activities

Surveillance Activities

ABCs conducts surveillance for several pathogens:

The overall objectives are to:

  • Determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive disease due to the above organisms in multiple large diverse U.S. populations.
  • Determine molecular epidemiologic patterns and microbiologic characteristics of public health relevance for isolates causing the above invasive infections.
  • Provide an infrastructure for further research, such as special studies aimed at identifying risk factors for disease and post-licensure evaluation.


  • For group A and group B streptococcus (GAS, GBS), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, microbiology records from all hospital laboratories in the Portland tri-county region (Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties) are audited on a routine basis.
  • For Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis, microbiology records from all hospital laboratories in the state of Oregon are audited on a routine basis.
  • Sterile site isolates are forwarded to the CDC for further testing.
  • Medical records are reviewed for demographic, clinical, and risk factor information.

ABCs Surveillance Data

Surveillance Activities

Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Data

The objective is to determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive disease due to groups A and B streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in several large populations.

The ABCs Monthly Surveillance Summary (pdf) reports monthly and year-to-date incidence rates and comparisons to ten-year average rates for the following pathogens.

For disease reporting and data:

ABCs Special Studies

Special Studies

Oregon EIP Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Special Studies

  • 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) Effectiveness
    A vaccine effectiveness evaluation of PCV13 against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes in the population of children recommended to receive PCV13. It is expected that the vaccine will be highly effective at preventing IPD, even in children who do not receive the full four‐dose schedule. Abstract

  • Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (MCV4) Effectiveness
    A vaccine effectiveness evaluation of MCV4 against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by vaccine‐preventable serogroups (A, C, Y, W135), and the serogroup-specific effectiveness of MCV4 against serogroups C and Y meningococcal disease among adolescents. Abstract

  • Implementation of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Prevention Guidelines Among Infants With Invasive Early-Onset Infections
    Traceback investigation evaluating the implementation of perinatal GBS prevention guidelines to identify implementation failures among early‐onset GBS cases and to assess factors that may contribute to a false negative antenatal GBS screen. Abstract

  • Evaluation of Adherence to Guidelines to Prevent Perinatal Infections in Oregon
    The vertical transmission of infections from mother to child is a major cause of newborn morbidity and mortality. Over the past few decades, interventions to prevent the transmission of certain infections during pregnancy and labor and delivery, such as group B streptococcus (GBS), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, N. gonorrheae, C. trachomatis, and rubella have been implemented to reduce the burden of these diseases among neonates. This report details the findings of an evaluation of prenatal screening and treatment practices in Oregon for these pathogens. Report (pdf)

To see all Oregon Emerging Infections Program special studies go to EIP special studies

ABCs Publications / Papers / Presentations


Oregon EIP Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Publications

  • Shifting Genetic Structure of Invasive Serotype 19A Pneumococci in the United States
    J Infect Dis. 2011; 203(10):1360-8. Abstract
  • New Approaches to Estimating National Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease
    Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 174(2):234-42. Abstract
  • Incidence and Severity of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, Group A streptococcus, and Group B streptococcus Infections Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women
    Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(2):114-23. Abstract
  • Early Estimate of the Effectiveness of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine
    Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011; 30(6):451-5. Abstract
  • Changing Disparities in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease by Socioeconomic Status and Race/ethnicity in Connecticut
    1998-2008. Public Health Reports. 2011 Supp 3;126: [In press]. Article
  • Geographic Variation in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Following Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in the United States
    Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(2):137-43. Abstract
  • Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007
    N Engl J Med 2011; 364(21): 2016-2025. Abstract
  • Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Candidate Vaccine Antigens Among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Isolates in the United States
    Vaccine. 2011;29(29-30):4739-44. Abstract
  • The Burden of Invasive Early-onset Neonatal Sepsis in the United States, 2005-2008
    Pediatr Infec Dis J. 2011: Epub ahead of print [In press]. Abstract