NOTE: Enterobacterales is the name of a new scientific order.
In 2020, a
taxonomy change was adopted to use "Enterobacterales" as the name of a new scientific order. Enterobacteriaceae are now a family within the "Enterobacterales" order, along with
Note: As of July 1, 2015, the carbapenem requirements for the laboratory surveillance definition of CRE and the case definition changed. For more information see
OAR 333-017: Disease Control and
OAR 333-018: Disease Reporting.
The Enterbacaterales is a large order of Gram-negative bacilli, many members of which are upstanding residents of the human gastrointestinal tract.
See the full list of genera (pdf). Currently available carbapenem antibiotics, commonly used to treat severe, hospital-associated infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, are doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacterales can occur by many mechanisms, including the production of
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or a metallo-beta-lactamase.
In the U.S., CRE were first reported in North Carolina in 1999; since then, they have been reported in at least 32 states. Unfortunately, carbapenem resistance genes can be transmitted among bacteria of different genera, so that once CRE emerge in a given area, the carbapenem antibiotics may lose their effectiveness against many different organisms. If CRE become prevalent, empiric therapy will necessitate antibiotics that have broader antibacterial spectra and are much more expensive; and some patients may die for lack of prompt and effective treatment. If we can rapidly identify and isolate patients with CRE we may be able to prevent or delay their becoming endemic in Oregon.
What is required?
Health Care Providers and Clinical Laboratories
Health care providers and clinical laboratories are
required by law to report cases and suspect cases to local health departments within
one working day.
Clinical laboratories are asked to save novel CRE isolates (i.e., not more than one per patient of the same genus and species per calendar year).
Providencia spp., and
Morganella spp. that are only resistant to imipenem and no other carbapenem should not be saved or sent to OSPHL.
For Local Health Departments