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Firearm Safety

Public Health's Role

The Oregon Health Authority (OHA), through its Injury and Violence Prevention section in the Public Health Division, works to prevent firearm-related deaths and injuries, including suicide. The Public Health Division does this through data collection and tracking, and by collaborating with community, tribal, local, state, and federal partners.

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Basic Firearm Safety Tips

  • Treat all guns as if they are loaded.
    If you don’t know how to check if a gun is loaded, leave it alone and get help from someone who knows how to check.
  • Keep the gun pointed in a safe direction.
    A "safe direction" means if the gun accidentally fires, it will not cause injury or damage. Only point a gun at an object you plan to shoot.
  • Keep your finger off the trigger until you are ready to shoot.
    If you are moving around with your finger on the trigger and trip or fall, you could pull the trigger by accident. Sudden loud noises or movements could also startle you and cause you to pull the trigger by accident.
  • Know your target, its surroundings and beyond.
    Check that the areas in front of and behind your target are safe before you shoot. If the bullet misses or completely passes through the target, it could hit a person or object. Identify the target and make sure it is what you plan to shoot. If you are in doubt, don’t shoot!
  • Know how to properly operate your gun.
    Never assume that what applies to one type of gun is exactly the same for a different make or model. If you have questions about your gun, ask your firearms dealer or contact the manufacturer directly.
  • Store your gun safely and securely to prevent unauthorized use.
    Use a firearm safety device on the gun, like a trigger lock or cable lock, so it can't be fired. Store it unloaded in a lock box or a gun safe. Store your gun in a different location than the ammunition.

Also, Keep in Mind...

  • Never handle a gun when you are feeling angry or depressed.
    Your judgment may be impaired.
  • Guns, alcohol and drugs don't mix.
    Alcohol and any other substance that can impair your normal mental or physical functions should not be used before or while handling guns. Don’t handle or use your gun when you are taking medications that make you sleepy or that include a warning to not operate machinery while taking this drug.
  • Never shoot a gun in celebration.
    A bullet fired into the air will return to the ground with enough speed to cause injury or death.
  • Do not shoot at water, or at flat or hard surfaces.
    The bullet can ricochet and hit someone or something other than the target.
  • Hand your gun to someone only after you make sure it is unloaded and the cylinder or action is open.
    Only take a gun from someone after you make sure it is unloaded and the cylinder or action is open.
  • Always wear ear and eye protection when shooting a gun. The loud noise from a fired gun can cause hearing damage. Debris and hot gas can be released when a gun is fired and injure your eyes.

*Adapted from the State of California Department of Justice​​​

Oregon House Bill 4045 defined community violence as an intentional act of interpersonal violence committed in public by someone who is not the victim’s family member or intimate partner. The Oregon Health Authority’s Injury and Violence Prevention and Medicaid Programs are supporting development of sustainable programs to help communities break the cycle of community violence.

OHA has released a grant opportunity to support development of hospital-based violence intervention programs. Proposals must be received by May 26, 2023.

Firearm Deaths in Oregon

In Oregon in 2019, 566 people died from a firearm (12.5 per 100,000 persons).

These deaths include:

  • 466 from suicide (82%)
  • 78 from homicide (14%)
  • 4% other (unintentional, undetermined, legal intervention)

For more up to date information, please visit our Center for Health Statistics data dashboard​

Fact Sheets

Firearm deaths Oregon and USA.pdf

Firearm deaths by Oregon County.pdf

CD Summary: A new approach to preventing firearm deaths, 2017

Firearms and Suicide

Many people in the U.S. believe that most firearm deaths are homicides, however the data show otherwise.

  • Nationwide, 60% of all firearm deaths are the result of suicide.
  • In Oregon, this number is even higher at over 80%, with a disproportionately higher rate in rural communities compared to urban. 
  • 77% of all firearms suicides are done by handgun. 
  • Among male military veterans, 3 out of 4 suicides involve a firearm.
The high percent of firearms deaths that are suicides is also seen in other Western states, including Alaska, Colorado, Utah, and Washington, and our neighbors in Canada.

Risk Factors for Firearm Suicide

Oregon tracks violent deaths through the Oregon Violent Death Reporting System (OR-VDRS). The data include deaths by age, sex, and county, and trends over time.

Common risk factors for firearms suicide identified in OR-VDRS include:

  • Mental illness and substance abuse
  • Previous suicide attempts
  • Interpersonal relationship problems or poor family relationships
  • Recent criminal legal problems or school problems
  • Exposure to a friend or family member's suicidal behavior​​

  • Background checks: Following the 2015 Senate Bill 941, Oregon passed the Oregon Firearms Safety Act requiring private or unlicensed firearm sellers to conduct criminal and mental health checks for nearly all private or unlicensed gun sales and transfers, including at a gun show.
  • Extreme Risk Protection Order (ERPO): Senate Bill 719 (2017) allows a judge to take guns away from people who may harm themselves or others.
    • This action can only be taken if there is documented evidence that a person is threatening harm to self or others. The law ensures all parties receive due process.
  • ​Securing and storing firearmsSB 554 requires gun owners to secure their guns by storing them in a locked container or gun room or by using a trigger or cable lock when it is not being carried or under their control. A gun left unattended in a vehicle and within view of those outside the vehicle is NOT secure.   
    • The penalty associated with a violation of the law increase if a minor accesses an unsecured firearm due to the violation. 
    • There is no requirement for secure storage if a gun owner is alone at home or with others allowed to use the gun. 
    • Use of a gun within two years of a violation of the law allows the injured party to bring a civil lawsuit against the owner.  
    • A gun transfer that requires a criminal background check prior to the transfer also requires transfer of the firearm with a trigger lock or in a locked container. 
    • The law requires gun dealers to post in a prominent location a notice, in block letters not less than one inch in height, that states, “The purchaser of a firearm has an obligation to store firearms in a safe manner and to prevent unsupervised access to a firearm by a minor. If a minor or unauthorized person obtains access to a firearm and the owner failed to store the firearm in a safe manner, the owner may be in violation of the law." 
    • Are guns allowed at the state Capitol? NO. 
    • Are guns allowed in public education institutions? SB 554 allows public school districts, community colleges and universities to set their own policies to ban guns on their premises.

  • Convicted domestic violence offenders and people subject to domestic abuse restraining orders are barred from possessing guns and ammunition per Senate Bill 525 (2015)
  • People with stalking and domestic violence convictions are banned from owning firearms per the 2018 Gun Violence Prevention Bill, House Bill 4145 (2018).
  • License to carry a concealed handgun: County sheriffs must issue a concealed handgun license (CHL) to any requester who meets requirements in ORS 166.291, unless “the sheriff has reasonable grounds to believe that the applicant has been or is reasonably likely to be a danger to self or others, or to the community at large.” (ORS 166.293).
    • One in 16 Oregon adults has a concealed handgun license.
    • A CHL allows carrying a loaded and hidden gun into public schools and the Oregon State Capitol Building.
    • Oregon does not allow people with concealed handgun licenses from other states to carry concealed in Oregon, but gun owners from states bordering Oregon may request a CHL from border county sheriffs.
  • Minimum age to purchase or possess a gun: Oregon law prohibits anyone under age 18 from possessing a gun unless possession would otherwise be lawful and (1) the gun is not a handgun and was transferred with the minor’s parent’s consent, or (2) the minor possesses the gun temporarily for a lawful purpose (ORS 166.250).
  • Firearms transaction data retention: The Governor’s Executive Order No 16-12 (2016) allows the Oregon State Police to retain data for 5 years. It also directs OHA to study the effects of gun violence and suicide in Oregon and work with the Governor’s office to determine if executive action or statutory amendment is necessary to obtain data.
  • Oregon Revised Statutes (ORS) do not:
    • Include safety standards for firearms;
    • Limit the sale or possession of semiautomatic assault rifles;
    • Limit the number of rounds in a magazine except for hunting;
    • Require licensing or safety training before buying or possessing a firearm. ​

  • Addressing Firearm Safety with Patients at Risk of Suicide Online Course This free course is designed to help primary care physicians and other types of health care providers working in rural settings develop better communication skills, comfort, and confidence when having conversations about firearm safety with patients who are suicidal. This course is specific to firearm safety and does not focus on other methods of suicide. The course is approved to meet Oregon Health Authority ​ Cultural Competence Continuing Education (CCCE) training requirements. Upon completion of the course, you will be directed to a link to provide your email address to receive your completion certificate by email.This course also meets Oregon Health Authority Cultural Competence Continuing Education requirements for Chiropractor, Counselor/Therapist, Emergency Medical Service Provider, Home Care Worker, Long Term Care Administrator, Massage Therapist, Midwife, Naturopathic Doctor, Nurse, Occupational Therapist, Pharmacist, Physical Therapist, Physician (MD/DO), Psychologist, Social Worker, Speech-Language Pathologist/Audiologist. Funding for this training was made possible (in part) by grant number SM 061759 from SAMHSA. The views expressed in written materials or publication and by speakers do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions or policies of CMHS, SAMHSA or HHS, nor the Oregon Health Authority or Lines for Life; nor does mention of trade names, commercial practices or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government, the Oregon Health Authority or Lines for Life.
  • Oregon Firearm Safety ToolkitThis website highlights research on firearm safety with patients at risk of suicide conducted by Drs. Keys, Marino, Wolsko (OSU-Cascades) and Pennavaria (at the time of the research, LaPine Community Health Center). The website also contains a number of communication tools, including the patient facing People Who Love Guns Love You Brochure.  
  • Health System Interventions to Prevent Firearm Injuries and Death - The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to examine the roles that health systems can play in addressing the epidemic of firearm violence in the United States. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. 
  •  ​Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM) Online and In-Person Course. Reducing access to lethal means, such as firearms and medication, can determine whether a person at risk for suicide lives or dies. This free online course focuses on how to reduce access to the methods people use to kill themselves. It covers how to: (1) identify people who could benefit from lethal means counseling, (2) ask about their access to lethal methods, and (3) work with them—and their families—to reduce access. This course is designed for health care and direct service providers. Access the national online CALM course hereOregon CALM​ is an in-person training similar to the online CALM course with additional time for discussion and role play opportunities to enforce learning opportunities. For more information on Oregon CALM in-person training contact Kris Bifulco at  ​
  • ​American Medical Association Resources: ​
  •  ​American Psychological Association Resources: 
    • Training: What Mental Health Clinicians Can Do to Reduce Firearm Violence and Suicide (2.5 CE Credits available): This introductory workshop focuses on the epidemiology of firearm violence and suicide, social determinants of health, risk assessment for firearm-related harm, and prevention strategies for mental health care providers. The presenters discuss specific clinical scenarios and interventions for risk reduction, as well as firearm policy relevant to mental health providers and researchers. Participants gain an understanding of the most current and rigorous scientific evidence regarding risk identification and interventions for reducing firearm injury and suicide. ​
    • How to Talk To Your Patients About Firearm Safety  

  • CDC Data: WISQARS™ (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) is an interactive, online database that provides fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data. Researchers, the media, public health professionals, and the public can use WISQARS™ data to learn more about the public health and economic burden associated with unintentional and violence-related injury in the United States.

Crisis Lines

988 Suicide & Crisis Lifeline
Call or Text 988

Veteran Crisis Line
Call or Text 988, Press 1 or text 838255

Oregon County Crisis Hotlines

More Crisis Services

 Featured Data

The Oregon Violent Death Reporting System includes firearm data and an interactive data dashboard.

Oregon Firearm Injury Surveillance Through Emergency Rooms (FASTER) uses Oregon ESSENCE data to monitor firearm injuries across the state. The data on this dashboard broaden our understanding of the burden of firearm injuries in Oregon.