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Selected References: Judicious Use of Antibiotics

Woman examining specimens in petri dishes using a microscopeTopics:


Otitis Media

  • Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, et al. Shortened antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media in young children. NEJM. 2016;375(25):2446-2456.  Article
  • Venekamp RP, Sanders SL, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Rovers MM. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. The Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews 2015;6.  Abstract
  • Grossman Z, Zehavi Y, Leibovitz E, et al. Severe Acute Mastoiditis Admission is Not Related to Delayed Antibiotic Treatment for Antecedent Acute Otitis Media. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2015; 35:162-5. Abstract
  • Rosenfeld RM, Shin JJ, Schwartz SR et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Otitis Media with Effusion (Update). Otolaryngology head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 2016;154:S1-S41. Article
  • Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, et al. The Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Pediatrics 2013; 131:e964-e99. Article

Cough Illness/Bronchitis

  • Hersh AL, Jackson MA, Hick LA, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious D. Principles of judicious antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in pediatrics. Pediatrics 2013;132:1146-54. Article
  • Smith SM, Smucny J, Fahey T. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Jama 2014;312:2678-9. Abstract
  • Ebell MH, Lundgren J, Youngpairoj S. How Long Does a Cough Last? Comparing Patients' Expectations With Data From a Systematic Review of the Literature. The Annals of Family Medicine 2013;11:5-13. Article


  • Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infections Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:e86-102. Article
  • Block SL Streptococcal pharyngitis: guidelines, treatment issues, and sequelae. Pediatric Annals 2014;43:11-6 Article
  • Cohen JF, Bertille N, Cohen R, Chalumeau M. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2016;7. Abstract
  • Weber NC, Klepser ME, Akers JM, Klepser DG, Adams AJ. Use of CLIA-waived point-of-care tests for infectious diseases in community pharmacies in the United States. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 2016;16:253-64. Abstract


  • Williams DJ, Shah SS. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Conjugate Vaccine Era. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2012;1:314-28. Article
  • Remington LT, Sligl WI. Community-acquired pneumonia. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2014;20:215-24. Abstract
  • Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM. Investigations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in the United States: trends in molecular typing and macrolide resistance from 2006 to 2013. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2015;53:124-30. Article
  • Gelfer G, Leggett J, Myers J, Wang L, Gilbert DN. The clinical impact of the detection of potential etiologic pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 2015;83:400-6. Abstract
  • Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. The New England journal of medicine 2015;373:415-27. Article


  • Dass K, Peters AT. Diagnosis and Management of Rhinosinusitis: Highlights from the 2015 Practice Parameter. Current allergy and asthma reports 2016;16:29. Abstract
  • Cramer JD, Kern RC, Tan BK, Peters AT, Evans CT, Smith SS. Potential national savings from prescribing guideline-recommended antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis. The Laryngoscope 2016:126:579-81. Article
  • Ebell MH, McKay B, Guibault R, Ermais Y. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis in primary care: a systematic review of test accuracy. The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 2016:66:e612-32. Article

Trends In Antibiotic Prescribing

  • Tystrup M, Beckman A, Molstad S, et al. Reduction in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care - a retrospective study of electronic patient records. BMC 2016;16(1):709.  Article
  • Shehab N, Lovegrove MC, Geller Al, et al. US emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events, 2013-2014. JAMA. 2016;316(20):2115-2125 Abstract
  • Hersh, A.L., Antibiotic Prescribing in Ambulatory Pediatrics in the United States. Pediatrics, 2011. 128(6):p.1053-1061 Article
  • Shapiro, D.J., et al., Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2013. Article
  • Barnett, M.L. and J.A. Linder, Antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis in the United States, 1996-2010. JAMA, 2014. 311(19): p. 2020-2022 Article
  • Kronman, M.P., C. Zhou, and R. Mangione-Smith, Bacterial prevalence and antimicrobial prescribing trends for acute respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics, 2014. 134(4): p. e956-65 Article
  • Fleming-Dutra, K.E., et al., prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010-2011. JAMA, 2016. 315(17):p. 1864-1873  Abstract
  • Renati, S. and J.A. Linder, Necessity of office visits for acute respiratory infections in primary care. Family practice, 2016. 33(3): p. 312-7 Abstract
  • Roberts, R.M., L.A. Hicks, and M. Bartoces, Variation in US outpatient antibiotic prescribing quality measures according to health plan and geography. The American journal of managed care, 2016.22(8): p. 519-23 Article

Interventions to Reduce Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics

  • Coxeter, P., et al., Interventions to facilitate shared decision making to address antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in primary care. The cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2015.11.  Abstract
  • Gonzales, R., et al., A cluster randomized trial of decision support strategies for reducing antibiotic use in acute bronchitis. JAMA Intern Med, 2013. 173(4): p. 267-73. Article
  • Mangione-Smith, R., et al., Communication practices and antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections in children. Annals of family medicine, 2015. 13(3): p. 221-7. Article
  • Mann, D., et al., Measures of user experience in a streptococcal pharyngitis and pneumonia clinical decisions support tools. Applied clinical informatics, 2014. 5(3): p. 824-35. Article
  • McCullough, J.M., F.J. Zimmerman, and H.P. Rodriguez, Impact of clinical decision support on reciept of antibiotic prescriptions for acute bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA, 2014. 21(6): p. 1091-7. Article
  • Meeker, D., et al., Nudging guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA internal medicine, 2014. 174(3): p. 425-31.  Article
  • Meeker, D., et al., Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Jama, 2016. 315(6): p. 562-70.  Article
  • Smith, K.L., D. Tran, and B.L. Westra, Sinusitis Treatment Guideline Adherence in the E-Visit Setting: A Performance Improvement Project. Applied clinical informatics, 2016. 7(2): p. 299-307.  Abstract 
  • McDonagh M, Peterson K, Winthrop K , Cantor A, Holzhammer B, Buckley DI. Improving Antibiotic Prescribing for Uncomplicated Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 163. (Prepared by the Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2012-0014-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 15(16)-EHC 033-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2016.  Article

Impact of Antibiotic Prescribing on Resistance

  • "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults." Clinical Infectious Diseases. March 1, 2007 2007;44(Supplement 2):S27-S72. Article
  • "Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis." BMJ 2010;340: c2096. Article
  • "Effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin therapy on pharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study." The Lancet 2007;369:482-90. Abstract
  • "Antibacterial use and Streptococcus pneumonia penicillin resistance: A temporal relationship model." Microbial Drug Resistance 2006;12:158-63. Abstract
  • "Reduction of antibiotic use in the community reduces the rate of colonization with penicillin G-nonsusceptible Streptcoccus pneumonia." Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005;41:930-38. Article

Knowledge and Attitudes About Antibiotic Use

  • "Sustainability for behavior change in the fight against antibiotic resistance: a social marketing framework." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009;63:230-37.  Article
  • "Physician responses to a community-level trial promoting judicious antibiotic use." Annals of Family Medicine 2008;6:206-12. Article
  • "Antibiotic use for emergency department patients with upper respiratory infections: prescribing practices, patient expectations, and patient satisfaction." Annals Emergency Med 2007;50:213-220. Abstract
  • "Clinician knowledge and beliefs after statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use." Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:904-11. Article