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Animal Diseases and Biosecurity


Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been detected in livestock in multiple states. HPAI has not been detected in Oregon livestock. 

The strain of HPAI detected in livestock is the same strain that has been circulating in wild waterfowl throughout the US. Initial testing of this virus has not found any mammalian adaptations that would make it more transmissible to humans. While cases among humans in direct contact with infected anima​ls are possible, the risk to the public still remains low. This continues to be a developing situation and more information will be shared by federal and state partners as it becomes available (see Resource section below).

Initial Detections

On March 20, 2024, the Minnesota Board of Animal Health announced that goats in Minnesota had been diagnosed with HPAI on a backyard poultry farm that was infected with HPAI. The primary symptoms associated w​ith affected goat kids were neurologic signs and unusual mortality rates. The adult goats on this premises seem to be unaffected by HPAI. 

On March 25, 2024, USDA announced that HPAI was detected in dairy cattle in Texas and Kansas on farms that were affected with a syndrome first reported in the Texas panhandle in February 2024. Several states have since confirmed HPAI on dairy farms. 

Signs in Dairy Cattle

On affected farms, on average, 10-20% of cattle are reported as being clinically affected, with no associated mortality. The primary symptoms reported in clinically affected dairy cattle include: 

  • Rapid onset illness, specifically among older, lactating cows
  • Decreased herd-level milk production
  • Acute, sudden drop in production
  • Decrease in feed consumption
  • Abnormally dry feces
  • Fever
  • Thicker, more concentrated, colostrum-like milk​​

Affected cattle generally recover in 2-3 weeks.


Suspected cases of HPAI, including in cattle that fit the described signs above, must be immediately reported to the Oregon State Veterinarian (503-986-4711). HPAI in any species is considered a foreign animal disease and immediate reporting of suspected cases is required.

Import Requirements

Today, the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) enacted emergency import requirements for cattle being imported into the State of Oregon from any state with cattle currently affected by HPAI/BIAV. In addition to existing import requirements, these emergency import requirements include: 

  • No cattle exposed to, infected with, or suspected to be carrying HPAI/BIAV may be imported into Oregon. 
  • Non-lactating dairy cattle require: 
    • A Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) completed no more than 7 days prior to importation into Oregon; and 
    • A valid Import Permit issued by ODA. 
  • Lactating dairy cattle require: 
    • A Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) completed no more than 7 days prior to importation into Oregon; and 
    • A valid Import Permit issued by ODA; and 
    • A negative individual or laboratory-pooled PCR test for influenza A, conducted on milk samples collected no more than 7 days prior to importation into Oregon. ​​
The full rule is available online through the Oregon Secretary of State's website. View Oregon Administrative Rule 603-011-5007

Food Safety

At this time, there is no concern about the safety of the milk or meat supply.  Since raw milk can be a vehicle for the transmission of human pathogens, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) along with other dairy partners are recommending that raw milk should not be consumed. Pasteurization of raw milk has been shown to kill harmful microorganisms, including HPAI viruses. Only milk from healthy animals is authorized for interstate commerce for human consumption and all dairy cattle are also subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act and must be slaughtered and processed under inspection by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service, ensuring that all meat entering the food supply has been inspected and approved for human consumption.​​


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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HPAI Cases

Includes information and links to resources about: current situation with H5N1 detections in USA; updates and recommendation spotlights; number of wild bird, poultry, and human detections; protective actions for people; related links, avian flu, and influenza types:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HPAI Data

Includes information about current influenza data in people to better understand the current H5N1 situation.

National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF)

Includes information and links to resources about: states with dairy cattle importation requirements or restrictions; states with confirmed HPAI cases; milk and meat safety; protecting the dairy workforce; signs in dairy cows; protecting dairy cattle; biosecurity resources; and National Dairy Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM) Program expectations:

Secure Milk Supply

The Secure Milk Supply resources, while built around Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), provide valuable resources for milk producers, veterinarians, processors, and regulatory officials for disease outbreak preparedness including customizable templates for developing biosecurity plans, disease monitoring, movement guidance, signs and posters and more:

US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Anima and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Includes information and links to resources about: frequently asked questions and recommendations; confirmed cases of HPAI in domestic livestock; latest USDA news; information for producers and veterinarians; biosecurity resources; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) resources; and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resources: USDA APHIS

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Disinfectants

EPA’s registered antimicrobial products with label claims that are effective against avian influenza virus: EPA Disinfectants

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Questions and answers regarding milk safety during HPAI outbreaks: Milk Safety during HPAI Outbreaks



Animal Health
635 Capitol Street NE
Salem, OR 97301
Phone: 503-986-4680
Fax: 503-986-4734