Modern poultry enthusiasts and industry members use the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) to protect and improve flock health and to sell disease-free poultry nationwide. The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) uses the NPIP program as a tool to protect Oregon's poultry network.
Through the program, ODA works in cooperation with NPIP participants to test for Salmonella Pullorum, avian influenza, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae using NPIP program standards.
NPIP participation benefits
- Monitors the health of your flock and provides certification through regular testing
- Limits the likelihood of introduction of disease into your flock through continued purchasing of NPIP certified birds, and enhanced biosecurity practices
- Participation enables you to sell birds to other NPIP members without additional testing
- Promotes interstate movement and shipment of poultry
- The certification can be used as a promotional tool for your poultry business
- Fulfills many exhibition requirements at poultry shows. This is useful, as NPIP Pullorum-Typhoid Clean states must have negative test results for birds at shows and fairs in their state
- Submit your application and once it has been processed, the field veterinarian in your area will contact you to set up an inspection and flock testing appointment
- Have an annual flock and premises inspection and to test for Salmonella Pullorum
- Keep records of poultry purchases using VS 9-3 forms (Report of Sales of Hatching Eggs, Chicks and Poults)
- Submit electronic VS 9-3 forms to ODA within seven days of poultry or hatching egg shipment of movement
What is the National Poultry Improvement Plan?
The National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a program with roots as far back as the 1930s in the United States. Originally the NPIP program's main objective was to eliminate pullorum, a variety of Salmonella bacteria also known as “pullorum disease," which infects domesticated chickens. This disease also affects turkeys, ducks, guinea fowl, pheasants, quail, geese, pigeons, parakeets and canaries.
Pullorum disease is easily spread by contaminated dust, litter, feed, water and other infected materials. The disease also spreads from sick carrier hens to their egg, thus infecting the chick. In the 1920s and 1930s, this disease proved to be devastating to the United States poultry industry, killing upwards of 80% of baby poultry, and causing loss of productivity in adult birds.
Pullorum disease was becoming widespread due to the infectious nature of the disease and the increasing ability to purchase and sell poultry through the postal service. A nationwide collaborative avian health effort amongst the states was needed to combat further spread. Several states started statewide pullorum testing programs, eradicating reactors from their breeding poultry flocks and identifying pullorum-free flocks. Other states began to follow suit, establishing a national network of disease-free poultry.
The NPIP program continues to change and develop today. In addition to testing for pullorum disease, the modern NPIP in Oregon tests for poultry diseases such as avian influenza, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Modern poultry enthusiasts and industry members use the NPIP to protect and improve flock health and to sell disease-free poultry nationwide. The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) uses the NPIP program as a tool to protect Oregon's poultry network.
Testing Programs and Fees
A yearly participation fee and a farm visit fee for all testing other then avian influenza is required in addition to the cost for each disease tested for.
Participation Fee: $25/year
Farm Fee: $25/farm visit
Testing for Salmonella Pullorum is the cornerstone of NPIP participation and as such is mandatory for all participants annually. The on-farm test requires only a drop of blood for most poultry species. Turkeys must be tested using a laboratory blood test.
- Frequency: Annual
- Cost: $0.25/bird
- Turkeys: $1.50/bird (lab fee) + $0.25/bird (collection fee)
Testing for avian influenza is a recommended additional program available to participants. This test requires an oral swab, which is submitted to a laboratory.
- Frequency: Every 6 months
- Cost: No cost
Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae
Testing for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae is an optional additional program available to participants. This test requires blood to be collected by a state agent and sent to a laboratory.
- Frequency: Every 3 months
- Cost: $3.20/bird (lab fee) + $0.25/bird (collection fee)
Find more information and an application in the NPIP new participant information packet