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Animal Diseases and Biosecurity

​​​​​​Species Affected

The FMD virus causes illness in cows, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other animals with divided hooves. It does not affect horses, dogs, and cats.​


Animals with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) typically have a fever and blisters on the tongue and lips, in and around the mouth, on the mammary glands, and around the hooves. These blisters, called vesicles, pop and turn into red areas called erosions. The vesicles rupture rather quickly and can be hard to identify upon examination. Pain and discomfort from the vesicles and erosions lead to other symptoms such as depression, anorexia, excessive salivation, lameness, and reluctance to move or stand. Most affected animals will not die from FMD, but the disease leaves them weakened and unable to produce meat and milk the way they did before. FMD virus is not a public or food safety health concern. 

FMD is caused by a virus. After an animal is infected with the virus, the first signs of illness usually appear within two to fourteen days. The virus survives in living tissue and in the breath, saliva, urine, and other excretions of infected animals. It can also survive in contaminated materials and the environment for several months under the right conditions. Time, extreme temperatures, and pH changes will inactivate (i.e., kill) the virus. The virus can be transmitted by direct contact with another cloven hoof susceptible animal or indirect contact with contaminated equipment or contaminated materials. 

There are seven known types and more than 60 subtypes of the FMD virus. Immunity to one type does not protect an animal against other types or subtypes. ​

Reporting Requirements

Foot-and-mouth disease is a mandatory reportable disease in Oregon. ​


Animal Health
635 Capitol Street NE
Salem, OR 97301
Phone: 503-986-4680
Fax: 503-986-4734