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Animal Diseases and Biosecurity

​​​​​Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is an infectious and potentially fatal viral disease of members of the horse family. The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAv) is categorized as a retrovirus: it contains genetic RNA material, which it uses to produce DNA. The DNA is then incorporated into the genetic makeup of infected cells. There is no vaccine or treatment for the disease. It is often difficult to differentiate from other fever-producing diseases, including anthrax, influenza, and equine encephalitis. 

EIA Testing State Laws

Exceptions to equine infectious anemia (EIA) test requirements can be found under OAR 603-011-1220

General animal import requirements can be found under OAR 603-011-1100​


The AGID, or Coggins, test has been shown to correlate with horse inoculation test results for EIAv and therefore can be used to identify EIAv carriers. Although other serologic tests have been defined and approved for the diagnosis of EIA, the AGID test is r​ecognized internationally as the “gold standard” serologic test. The use of AGID and additional tests has assisted in the control of EIA. Presently, USDA recognizes the AGID and a number of ELISA formats for conducting official tests. 

Controlling the spread of EIAv involves minimizing or eliminating contact of healthy horses with the secretions, excretions, and blood of EIAv-infected horses. Once the reservoirs of EIAv are identified, separated, and maintained at a safe distance from the other horses, the transmission of EIAv is broken. Until all horses are tested, precautions should be taken to prevent commingling with horses that do not originate from test-negative farms or that have been exposed to test-positive horses. All diagnostic laboratories are required to report positive test results to Federal and State authorities for appropriate action.

When an equine has a positive result on an official test for EIA, the animal must be placed under quarantine within 24 hours after positive test results are known in order to permit confirmation testing and to prevent further exposure of other equines. The equine must remain in quarantine until final classification and disposition are made. 

All exposed equines (either individual or within a herd) within 200 yards of the location where a reactor equine is or was maintained must also be placed under quarantine. The quarantine area must provide no less than 200 yards of separation from all other equines. The quarantine area and the quar​antined equines therein must be monitored periodically by regulatory personnel to ensure that provisions of the quarantine are not being violated. Additional information regarding the control program may be obtained by contacting your local APHIS –VS District Office.



Animal Health
635 Capitol Street NE
Salem, OR 97301
Phone: 503-986-4680
Fax: 503-986-4734