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General Supervision

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires states to ensure that the requirements of IDEA are carried out. General supervision is how the state meets IDEA requirements, monitors and provides support for IDEA implementation by local education agencies (LEAs), and improves educational results and functional outcomes for students experiencing disabilities.

General supervision in Oregon is authorized by 34 CFR § 300.149, ORS 343.041, and OAR 581-015-2015.

Overview of General Supervision

The Office of Enhancing Student Opportunities (OESO) uses each of the eight general supervision components described by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education in its Differentiated Monitoring and Support System to implement the General Supervision Framework and support districts to comply with IDEA and improve the educational results and functional outcomes of Oregon students experiencing disabilities. The core components, illustrated below, represent what all states must do to ensure implementation of IDEA:

Components of Oregon’s General Supervision System

Below is a description of each component of Oregon’s General Supervision System:

fiscal management

The state provides oversight and technical assistance on the distribution and use of funds according to federal and state requirements. The state and LEAs must have strong internal controls to ensure fiscal accountability, and the state must monitor each recipient of IDEA funds to ensure IDEA and other federal fiscal requirements are met.

integrated monitoring

The Oregon General Supervision Framework integrates effective monitoring strategies across programs and across components of. The state uses multiple data sources and monitoring mechanisms to monitor each LEA for both compliance and results. Monitoring mechanisms include on-site and off-site monitoring activities and examine district and school programs and staff performance, as well as the individualized educational programs (IEPs) for individual students. The state focuses monitoring on priority areas that the state education agency selects based on state performance, in addition to the areas federally required for reporting in the state performance plan and annual performance report (SPP/APR). 

sustaining compliance and inprovement

Supporting improvement and ensuring correction of noncompliance are critical components of general supervision. This component includes explicit state authority to enforce regulations, policies, and procedures and to use technical assistance to ensure correction of noncompliance. Oregon’s framework includes the means for corrective action planning and follow-up tracking of the correction and improvement. The state encourages program improvement for students experiencing disabilities through improvement planning and through incentivizing the inclusion of students experiencing disabilities in broader district improvement planning.

implementation of policies and procedures

States and LEAs must have and implement written policies and procedures that are aligned with IDEA and state statutes. The state monitors to ensure local practice reflects written policies and procedures. Effective policies and procedures include interagency agreements and memoranda of understanding that clearly establish expectations and include mechanisms for determining effectiveness of the agreements.

technical assistance and professional development

Technical assistance and professional development, as part of effective general supervision, must be data-driven and evaluated for effectiveness in improving results and/or compliance. OESO provide LEAs with a range of assistance and capacity building, implemented at varying levels and through multiple means such as websites; documents; coaching; mentoring; training of trainers; local, regional, and/or statewide meetings and conferences; and direct training from state personnel and/or state or regional technical assistance providers.

dispute resolution

IDEA requires the timely resolution of complaints, mediations, and due process actions and follow-up to ensure any noncompliance is corrected. Effective general supervision includes tracking the issues identified through dispute resolution to determine whether patterns or trends exist at the state education agency or at the LEA. Data from dispute resolution systems can inform technical assistance and professional development as well as monitoring priorities.


The state collects, verifies, and reports data to OSEP and the public on compliance and results for Oregon’s students experiencing disabilities. OESO uses student and LEA data to inform its accountability and support activities and to measure improvement. Through a number of data collection activities, the state ensures that complete and accurate data are used for reporting to OSEP and the public and for decision-making about program management and improvement.

state preformance plan/annual performance report

The State Performance Plan/Annual Performance Report (SPP/APR) is an accountability mechanism for states and LEAs. The report’s 17 Indicators are purposely written to provide a measurable indication of a state’s performance in specific statutory priority areas of Part B of IDEA. Parents and community members should be actively involved in developing all aspects of the SPP. The state intends for the development and implementation of the plan to lead to improved results for students experiencing disabilities. The SPP/APR is a blueprint for systems change. Reporting is critical to ensuring accountability to the public.

Primary General Supervision Resources

Cyclical Monitoring Resources

Focused Monitoring Resources (2022-23 school year)

Additional General Supervision Resources