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African American/Black Student Success Plan

For a PDF version of the AABSS Student Success Plan click here

Table of Contents

Overview of House Bill 2016

In 2015, the Oregon Legislature enacted House Bill 2016, which directed the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) to develop and implement a statewide education plan for African American/Black students who are in early childhood through postsecondary education programs. The bill directed the ODE to convene an advisory group comprised of members of the African American/Black community and other stakeholders from across the state to provide guidance to the Department regarding the plan.

The Oregon Department of Education statewide education plan for African American/Black students addresses all indicators of student success and will:

  • decrease the disproportionate rate of disciplinary incidents;
  • increase parental engagement;
  • increase the engagement of students in educational activities before and after regular school hours;
  • increase early childhood and kindergarten readiness;
  • improve literacy and numeracy levels between kindergarten and grade three;
  • support student transitions to middle school and through the middle and high school grades to maintain and improve academic performance;
  • support culturally responsive pedagogy and practices from early childhood through post-secondary education;
  • support the development of culturally responsive curricula from early childhood through post-secondary education;
  • increase attendance of plan students in community colleges and professional certification programs; and
  • increase attendance of plan students in four-year post-secondary institutions of education

This statewide education plan seeks to address the historic and persistent opportunity and access gaps for African American/Black students. Quantitative and qualitative data from not only Oregon Department of Education, but key community partners like the Urban League of Portland, paint a picture of why gaps remain in our current 7/3/2017 10:23 AM 6 education system. These gaps persist in early childhood, youth development, K-12 and higher education settings, which lack a culturally diverse professional teaching core and/or culturally responsive instruction; and experience gaps in student achievement and opportunities as well as disproportionate rates of discipline. The historical and persistent challenges facing African American/Black students negatively impacts P-20 education, business development, housing and employment opportunities, social and economic growth for the state of Oregon and the overall health and wellness of not only Oregon’s African American/Black students, but its African American/Black communities. “For Black youth to succeed in school, they need the basics of good physical and mental health, a strong cultural identity, sufficient hours spent learning and positive teacher perception and expectation (State of Black Oregon Report, 2015).

Based on the 2015-2016 Statewide Report Card: Annual Report to the Legislature on Oregon Public Schools, the gap between African American and Black students and their grade level peers continues to exist in academic assessments, high school graduation rates, discipline referrals, and other social/emotional factors. As African American/Black students experience success in all the aforementioned areas, they are put on a path to fulfill their greatest dreams and desire. “Gaining skills and expertise for employment is critical to the financial health of youth of color. Investment in these programs is essential to the success of Black families” (State of Black Oregon Report, 2015).

African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group

As directed by the bill, the Oregon Department of Education convened an advisory group of individuals representing P-20 education, youth advocacy, health care, culturally specific community-based organizations, parent advocacy, and social justice organizations. The African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Groupmembers engaged in an open, collaborative process and worked diligently to discuss and identify challenges and opportunities that informed the recommendations that will improve student outcomes across all academic indicators.

House Bill 206 Advisory Group Members

Renee Anderson
Retired Math Teacher
Portland, OR
Dr. Yvette Assensoh
University of Oregon
Eugene, OR
Abdikadir Bashir
Center for African Immigrants and Refugees of Oregon
Portland, OR
Iris DeGruy Bell(Education Cabinet Member)
Youth Development Division
Salem, OR
Shelaswau Crier
Community Member
Salem, OR
Ben Cannon(Education Cabinet Member)
Higher Education Coordinating Commission
Dr. Karen Gray
Parkrose School District
Portland, OR
Lillian Green
Early Learning Division
Salem, OR
Joyce Harris
Education Northwest
Portland, OR
Ron Herndon
Albina Head Start
Portland, OR
Tony Hopson
Self Enhancement Inc.
Portland, OR
Abdi Jamac
Portland Public Schools
Portland, OR
Megan Irwin(Education Cabinet Member)
Early Learning Division
Salem, OR
Mark Jackson
REAP USA Inc.
Portland, OR
Nkenge Harmon Johnson
Urban League of Portland
Portland, OR
Dr. Joseph Jefferson, D.M.A.
Treasure Valley Community College
Ontario, OR
Monique T. Joseph
Parent
Hillsboro, OR
Kali Ladd
KairosPDX
Portland, OR
Joe McFerrin II
Portland Opportunities Industrialization Center
Portland, OR
Charles McGee
The Black Parent Initiative
Portland, OR
Cheryl Myers
Higher Education Coordinating Commission
Salem, OR
Dr. Reginald T.W. Nichols
Warner Pacific College
Portland, OR
Lolenzo Poe
Portland Public Schools
Portland, OR
George Russell
Retired Superintendent
Eugene, OR
Rob Saxton
Northwest Regional Education Service District
Hillsboro, OR
John Scott
Salem-Keizer School District
Salem, OR
Jennifer Ware
Health Care Coalition of Southern Oregon
Medford, OR
Dr. Charlene Williams
Portland Public Schools
Portland, OR
Frank Hanna Williams
Tillamook Family Counseling Center
Tillamook, OR
Earlene Wilson-Huey
Parent
Albany, OR
Laurie Wimmer
Oregon Education Association
Portland, OR

Forward

As a nation, we are at an intersectional point in time. Given the historically and current trends in Oregon’s outcome data for African American children, we the members of the HB 2016 workgroup, believe that now is the time for action. To that extent we are hoping to launch the next phase of this project, which includes specific recommendations linked to key objectives and metrics. Through a collective impact model, we are steering our community resources, passion, energy and time to ensuring that the GAP is closed for African American/Black children in Oregon by 2025.

Over a 14-month collaborative process, the African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group provided feedback and recommendations toward the development of the state’s African American/Black Student Success Plan. This plan is a product of that process and is confirmation regarding the state’s efforts to improve opportunities and outcomes for African American and Black children, youth and adults in Oregon.

The Plan includes short and long term educational objectives with accompanying strategies and measurable outcomes. These objectives have been crafted with the recommendations and vision of experts on African American/Black student success and with historical track record of exemplary results. These have all been detailed by members of the Advisory Group to support the fundamental beliefs and educational philosophy within the African American/Black community.

The Plan aligns with the Oregon Department of Education’s strategic goals and key efforts, including boosting attendance and graduation rates for African American and Black students, providing culturally relevant professional development for educators, increasing the recruitment, hiring, and retention of African American/Black teacher and administrators, and implementing historically accurate, culturally embedded African American/Black curriculum and instructional materials across the P-20 system.

The strength of relationship and partnership in the work of closing opportunity and access gaps for African American/Black students is a necessary element. HB 2016 was able to fund four grant projects for the 2015-2017 biennium. One noteworthy example of partnership and relationship is between SEI and POIC. These African/American/Black 7/3/2017 10:23 AM 9 community-based, culturally specific, expert organizations have created a partnership that builds on existing student supports in academic and wraparound services.

The ODE Office of Finance and Administration, Procurement Services coordinated the grant application process as part of the bill. The grant application process sought applicants with cultural knowledge and experience serving African American/Black students and families. Applicants were asked to address the following elements in their proposals:

  1. Promoting Regular and Consistent School Attendance to Eliminate Chronic Absenteeism
    1. Cultural responsive pedagogy and practice professional development for educators
    2. Culturally responsive mentoring and wraparound services for African American/Black students
    3. Student skill building and leadership advocacy for African American/ Black students
    4. Policies and practices that decrease the disproportionate rate of discipline incidents for African American/Black students
    5. Academically robust before and after-school and summer programming that supports social, emotional development in African American/Black students
  2. Addressing Parent and Community Engagement
    1. Capacity building for parents to develop the skills to advocate for their children and to understand their legal rights and responsibilities as African American/Black parents and understanding the P-20 educational system
    2. Promoting and strengthening parent and community engagement on closing opportunity/access gaps for African American and Black students
    3. Culturally responsive community advocates to provide coaching, mentoring and support for parents
    4. Capacity building for educators to develop the skills to engage parents and community members
  3. Addressing Early Childhood to Kindergarten, Middle to High School and High School to Post-Secondary Transitions
    1. School advocacy and mentoring for children, youth, and adults
    2. Academically robust before and after-school and summer school programming that supports social, emotional development in African American/Black students
    3. Student mentoring programming and skill building to promote access and success in post-secondary institutions and/or careers
    4. Capacity building coaching and mentoring for parents to support their children as they transition between educational institutions
    5. Academically robust before and after-school and summer school programming that supports social and emotional development in African American/Black students

Defining Oregon's African American/Black Youth

As we work to better serve all of Oregon’s youth it is an important starting point to acknowledge that not all school age youth are students.

The upsetting reality is that the numbers tell us that the disparities experienced by African American and Black students in every indicator of academic success translates into an even greater disproportionality of African American and Black out of school youth.

The Youth Development Council (YDC) calls to attention the fact that education is a right of school age youth. It is simply enrollment status that is the distinction between a youth who is a student and one who is not.

If a system successfully serves all youth, by necessity it would successfully serve all students. If a plan, such as the African American/Black Student Success Plan, proposes action by which all African American and Black school age youth succeed, then all African American and Black students succeed. To address the whole student is to address the individual youth.

The majority of African American and Black youth are likely students and for those who are not categorized as students, access and opportunity should be available. Programs that serve African American and Black youth are critical because the creation of equitable practices and opportunities that foster success must include the voices of those for whom the current practices, systems, and institutions have failed. It is not an either/or, it is a both/and. We must concurrently transform the practices and structures that have disproportionately negatively impacted African American and Black students, and we must create new pathways and opportunities to reengage those youth that have already born the consequences of the systemic and structural inequity of our educational system.

Serving Black/African Immigrant Students

As part of the process to develop recommendations for the African American/Black Student Success Plan, conversations were had related to student transitions through K12-college, which are critical junctures that either hinder students’ progress or propel them to newer heights of academic achievement. For African/Back immigrant children and families, there is a more important transition. These children and their families are resettled here often with little or no English proficiency, and limited or no formal education in their native countries. As such, they experience a jarring transition as they find themselves in a setting that is unfamiliar to them on multiple levels, including structural, linguistic, and cultural.

Several researchers have reported the isolation and confusion faced by these students in their schools upon arrival (Cheng, 1998; Dufresne & Hall, 1997; Moran, Stobbe, Tinajero, & Tinajero, 1993; Olsen, Jaramillo, McCall-Perez, & White, 1999; Pilon, 1993; Te, 1997). These students are linguistically isolated because they do not yet speak English and may speak a native language not spoken by others at the school, especially the staff. They are culturally isolated because as immigrants they are not familiar with American traditions, school practices, and popular teenage culture. Some students have felt ridiculed by English speakers because of their lack of English proficiency, and unfortunately shun their native language, resulting in an unnecessary loss of a potential bilingual resource (Olsen, 2000).

Among the transitions already identified, a recommendation of the African American/Black Student Success Plan should include one in which these students and families are placed in a program that promotes basic literacy development until the time they are eligible for the State of Oregon Refugee Support Program.

African American/Black Student Success Plan Grant Projects

The REAP Expansion Project

Organization: REAP USA, Project Director: Mark Jackson

The REAP Expansion Project is designed to expand REAP school-based and community programs and services to eight additional schools. In collaboration with project partners R.A.A.P. Counseling and Consulting, educators will be trained to be more culturally responsive to African American/Black students. Portland State University, R.A.A.P., and ILEAP will assist REAP in assessing school climates in each location, to better identify how to serve African American/Black students with programming.

The REAP Expansion Project will offer student participants the following:

  1. Leadership programming and ongoing academic support during and after school;
  2. Restorative justice services that include behavior coaching, curriculum, and a restorative plan;
  3. Leadership Conference to promote leadership, student voice and expose students to black community leaders.

The African American/Black Student Success Plan of Multnomah County Project

Agency: Self Enhancement, Inc. and POIC, Project Directors: Tony Hopson Jr. and Adriel Person

The African American/Black Student Success Plan of Multnomah County Project will follow SEI’s model which is dedicated to guiding underserved youth to realize their full potential. Working with schools, families, and community groups to provide the culturally responsive and comprehensive wraparound support, guidance, and opportunities that underserved students need to achieve academic, personal, and economic success. The relationship model focuses on providing culturally specific mentoring services including academic support, 24/7/365 case management, family engagement, college preparation, career exploration and skill building for youth at-risk of academic failure by providing a continuum of services to help students build resiliency in overcoming barriers in multiple environments: during school, after school, in the summer, at home, and following high school graduation.

The Project will collaborate with Portland Opportunities Industrialization Center + Rosemary Anderson High School (POIC+RAHS) to focus on African American/Black youth who have dropped out, been expelled, or are on the verge of dropping out/expulsion from the five Multnomah County school districts. POIC+RAHS will measure student growth in areas of rate of credit attainment (credits earned vs credits attempted), discipline (number of disciplinary incidents), family engagement and support, and school attendance/retention.

The Black/African Student Success Project

Organization: Immigrant and Refugee Community Organization, Project Director: Djimet Dogo

The Black/African Immigrant and Refugee Student Success Project is a consortium with the Immigrant and Refugee Community Organization (IRCO), four East Multnomah County School Districts and the Portland State University Department of Conflict Resolution and Center for Student Success, to develop a network of culturally responsive student and family supports to the growing population of Black/African Immigrant and Refugee students in the region. Given the marginalized conditions specific to these students, this project seeks to establish replicable systems of change to increase student engagement, school attendance and academic achievement. In addition to bicultural bilingual Academic Advisors within participating schools across the partnering school districts, this project compels increased parental involvement and advocacy, additional student access to out-of-school tutoring and academic interventions, student leadership trainings in restorative practice conflict resolutions, and culturally informed professional development for school staff.

The Bars to Bridges Project

District: Multnomah Education Service District, Project Director: Scott Ryan

The focus of the Bars to Bridges Project are detained African American/Black students and opportunity youth ages 11-21 attending the MESD school program at Donald E. Long (DEL), Yamhill Juvenile Detention School Program, Multnomah County Detention Center (ages 18-21), and Multnomah County Inverness jail (ages 18-21), as well as YCEP youth up to age 25 enrolled at Three Lakes High School, Oak Creek Youth Correctional Facility, and Ocean Dunes High School at the Camp Florence Youth Transitional Facility in Florence, Oregon. The project will reconnect students and opportunity youth to family and community resources, boost successful transitions to neighborhood and 7/3/2017 10:23 AM 14 community middle and high schools, community colleges, four-year colleges, and ultimately prepare students to enter the workforce job-ready, via programs like Job Corps, career and technical education (CTE), vocational education, and apprenticeship programs.

Student Data

“Every child should be able to attain an education and fulfill their dreams. We must focus on strategies to lift Black youth out of poverty, end school exclusion, and foster respect for cultural identity” (State of Black Oregon Report, 2015). The mechanisms to close gaps for African American/Black students in Oregon cannot only rely on the quantitative data, yet the importance of using accountability data front and center to paint a picture of the past and present is vital to moving towards a brighter future. The HB 2016 Advisory Group and its supporters do not believe that the data presented below is the single narrative that determines success or failure for African American/Black students, but rather as a resource that illustrates the challenges built into education systems.

The following accountability data is from a number of reports highlighting the chronic disparities for African American/Black students in Oregon compared specially to their White peers, and the overall student population. Schools and districts are encouraged to examine their current practice related to the following indicators:

  • Chronic Absenteeism
  • Student Discipline
  • Achievement in English language arts
  • Achievement in Mathematics
  • Growth in English language arts and Mathematics
  • Freshman On-Track
  • Four-year Graduation Rates
  • Five-year Completer Rates

Chronic Absenteeism

The state collects daily attendance rates for almost every student. Exceptions include students participating in college courses away from their main school campus and some students in alternative education settings, but these reflect a fairly small fraction of the total student population, especially at the elementary and middle school levels.

Regular student attendance at school has been shown to be a predictor of future success. One important measure for this is “Chronic Absenteeism.” Students are considered chronically absent in Oregon if they miss more than 10% of their schools days, which translates to missing an average of more than one day every two weeks. In our reporting we usually report the percentage of students that are NOT chronically absent, and we sometimes refer to these students as “Regular Attenders”. The chart below shows the percentage of students who were not chronically absent in the 2015- 2016 school year. Some takeaways:

  • The number of students chronically absent is fairly high (about 20%) in kindergarten, but this decreases to about 13% in upper elementary grades.
  • Chronic Absenteeism begins to increase in middle school and becomes quite high by late high school.
  • Black/African Americans have higher than average rates of absenteeism in Elementary school, near average in middle school, then much higher than average in high school.

Discipline

Oregon schools report incidents of in-school suspensions, out-of-school suspensions and expulsions. The chart below shows how rates of discipline vary significantly by grade, with a significant rise in 6th grade, and peaking in grades 7 and 8. Note that this graph gives statewide data for all students.

If we look at disparities between various student groups we see the following pattern. While middle school rates are much higher than at other grade, we see that about twice as many African American/Black students are disciplined than Whites or the population as a whole.

English Language Arts Achievement

African American/Black students have had a fairly consistent achievement gap in both English language arts and mathematics, as measured by statewide assessments. The chart below shows English language arts results for the 2015-2016 school year on the Smarter Balanced Assessment. Data show a consistent and large achievement gap across all grades. Very similar achievement gaps were also seen on prior year Smarter Balanced assessments as well as the OAKS reading assessments.

Some things to note:

  • Achievement gaps are significant
  • They persist across grade levels

Mathematics Achievement

African American/Black students have had a fairly consistent achievement gap in both English language arts and mathematics, as measured by statewide assessments. The chart below shows Mathematics results for the 2015-2016 school year on the Smarter Balanced Assessment. Data show a consistent and large achievement gap across all grades.

Some things to note:

  • Achievement gaps are significant
  • They persist across grade levels, and even slightly widen at high school
  • Hispanic students (not shown) actually slightly close their gap with white students at higher grades

Student Growth on Statewide Assessments

While achievement for African American/Black student group shows significant gaps, it is also important to look at year-to-year improvement in individual student assessment scores. Oregon does this by using a growth model that follows individual students to determine how their “growth” compares to that of other students.

The growth model takes a student, and then looks at other students in the state with similar prior test scores, called the student’s Academic Peers. The model then compares the student’s current year score to those of her Academic Peers, and assigns the student a growth percentile. For instance, a growth percentile of 65 would mean that the student had a current year score that was as high as or higher than 65 percent of her Academic Peers, reflecting the fact that she “grew” fast than average, compared to her peers.

The state average is, by definition the 50th percentile. The chart below shows the average (i.e., median) growth percentiles for African American/Black students; not only is their achievement behind that of other students, but they also have, on average, lower gains than other students at the same academic level.

Freshman On-Track

Students in their first year of high school are considered on-track when they have accrued at least 25% of the credits required for high school graduation prior to starting their sophomore year. This measure has been collected since 2013-2014, and has been shown to be predictive of future high school outcomes.

Freshmen On-Track rates have risen significantly over the three years that Oregon has collected this data. It’s important to note that while a gap still exits, the African American/Black On-Track rate has risen 12% in two years, compared to an increase of 5% statewide and 4% for Whites.

High School Completion

Oregon computes four- and five- year graduation and high school completion rates using a cohort model that follows students from 9th grade through their exit from K-12 education. Each rate represents the percentage of students in each cohort of entering 9th graders that achieve particular high school outcomes. As students enter the Oregon public school system they are added to the appropriate cohort, and as students transfer to private or homeschool, or transfer to a school out of the state they are removed from their cohort. It is important to note that dropouts are not removed from a cohort.

Cohort graduation rates are the percentage of students in a cohort earning regular or modified diplomas within the specified time frame. Completion rates are the percentage of students earning a regular, modified or extended diploma, or a GED or Adult High School Diploma. The four-year graduation rate and the five-year completion rate are two important markers for state and district accountability. The most recent graduation and completion rates are shown below.

While we still see significant achievement gaps, we have seen substantial closure of this gap over time. This is one of the few areas where the state has seen significant gap closures over the last decade.

The figure below indicates the percentages of African American/Black students who did not graduate on time in 2015-2016, based on the following categories: students with disabilities, economically disadvantaged and gender.

Based on a decade of longitudinal data, there is compelling evidence that Oregon is dramatically falling short in its aspirations for student completion of studies and credentials – both in high school and beyond. The data show that we have much work to do to improve outcomes for all students, and in particular students from populations historically underserved.

The Education Pathway Sankey diagram shown below traces the cohort of African American/Black Oregon public high school students who were sophomores in 2003- 2004 (i.e., the graduating Class of 2006) to depict the paths they traveled to whatever level of high school and postsecondary completion they achieved by age 25 (in 2013). Among the full cohort of 1,075 African American/Black Oregon students who were sophomores in public high schools in 2003-2004, 68 percent started postsecondary studies, but only 14 percent attained any kind of postsecondary degree by the age of 25 (nine years later).

ODE Equity Team Mission and Value Statements

Mission Statement

The mission of the ODE Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion is to support our educators, students, families, community members, and colleagues to be reflective and self-critical about designing, developing, and implementing culturally responsivesystems that value academic excellence for all students and promote social and emotional well-being, while maintaining high expectations and creating safe and supportive spaces for each student to thrive.

Value Statements

Social Justice

We honor the tenets of Social Justice Education, recognizing that creating and maintaining systemic reform includes changing laws, policy, and larger social conditions. Our goals are about eliminating racism, transforming institutions for equity and justice, and demanding the eradication of barriers for culturally and linguistically diverse students and their families.

Critical Examination of Power

We understand the power of White Privilege, recognizing that dominant society often carries an invisible knapsack of unearned assets which widen opportunity gaps between culturally and linguistically diverse students and their White peers, socially and academically.

Combating Discrimination and Disparities

We value diversity, recognizing that different backgrounds, perspectives, and ideas bring strength. We have a commitment to equitable treatment and elimination of discrimination in all forms, at all levels, and across all institutions and programs. We work to create and maintain an environment that respects diverse traditions, heritages and experiences. We challenge obstacles to respectful and inclusive learning environments and act in solidarity to prevent discrimination or harassment based on race, color, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or disability.

Building Capacity for Education Equity

We value supporting educators and our colleagues in developing equitable teaching and learning processes to promote the development of educators that acknowledge and promote equity within education for each student regardless of the students’ race, color, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, religion, national origin, age, or disability. We value supporting the Oregon Equity Lens’ vision for educational equity and excellence to close the achievement and opportunity gaps for students of color and low income students.

Multicultural Education

We support Multicultural Education, recognizing that multicultural educations includes a wide variety of programs and practices related to educational equity for gender, ethnic groups, English Learners, socioeconomics, exceptionalities, religion, and learning styles. We understand that Multicultural Education goes beyond a “Heroes and Holidays” approach and encompasses systemic reform in content, knowledge, pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowering school culture and social structure. Multicultural Education reflects culturally responsive pedagogy and practices that uses a student’s cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students. (Gay, 2000; 2010)

If you would like technical assistance from the Equity Team at the Oregon Department of Education, please contact Victoria Garcia at Victoria.garcia@state.or.us.

Oregon Department of Education Strategic Plan

The African American/Black Student Success Plan aligns with the Oregon Department of Education’s Strategic Plan for every student to start strong, transition successfully, graduate college and career ready, and to experience outstanding customer service.

Messages from Leadership

Salam Noor, Deputy Superintendent, Oregon Department of Education

Our mission here at the Department is to foster equity and excellence for every learner through collaboration with educators, parents and communities. Our vision is that everystudent will have access to and benefit from a world-class and well-rounded and equitable educational system. We are here to make lives better, to improve the opportunities for all students so they are successful and they transition to that next step in their life, whether they go directly college, they go to the workforce, or a combination of the above. The work of the HB 2016 African American/Black Student Success Plan speaks to the ways in which education equity can make a difference for students in Oregon. The Oregon Department of Education fully supports the recommendations highlighted in the plan and will work internally and externally to ensure their fulfillment.

Dr. Darryl Tukufu, Assistant Superintendent, Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion

An African proverb says, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will take you there.” A clear goal and vision for the success of African American/Black students in Oregon requires a collective effort to create and sustain resources aimed at changing inputs and outcomes in our current education system. The Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion at ODE aligns with the work of HB 2016 through its mission to “support our educators, students, families, community members and colleagues to be reflective and self-critical about designing, developing, and implementing culturally responsive systems that value academic excellence for all students and promotes social and emotional well-being, while maintaining high expectations and creating safe and supportive spaces for each student to thrive.” The African American/Black Student Success Plan provides a clear roadmap for ways in which attention to education equity for African American/Black students can become a reality and not simply a dream. The Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion fully 7/3/2017 10:23 AM 30 supports strategies that will lead toward Oregon becoming a model of success for all students.

Ben Cannon, Executive Director, Youth Development Council

The State of Oregon's Higher Education Coordinating Commission (HECC) is dedicated to fostering and sustaining the best, most rewarding pathways to opportunity and success for all Oregonians through an accessible, affordable and coordinated network for educational achievement beyond high school.” Equity strategies differ from equality in their aim to provide what students actually need for academic success, regardless of personal or social circumstances; HB2016 African American/Black Student Success Plan is a strong demonstration of deploying culturally-specific efforts to assist the state in achieving its educational goals.

Iris Bell, Executive Director, Youth Development Council

As part of the Governor’s Education Cabinet, the Youth Development Council (YDC) was created to support Oregon’s education system by developing and implementing statewide youth policy and administering funding to community-based and schoolbased youth development programs, services, and initiatives for youth. The YDC utilizes Positive Youth Development in a Unified Systems’ Theory framework along with emerging research related to culturally responsive program adaptation to ensure equity and relevancy across the spectrum of the diverse youth the Council serves. The YDC's participation in guiding and shaping the House Bill 2016 African American/Black Student Success Plan aligns with the Council's values that support youth access, equity and inclusion.

David Mandell, Acting Early Learning System Director

The mission of the Early Learning Division is to support all of Oregon’s young children and family to learn and thrive. We strongly share the belief articulated in Oregon’s Education Equity Lens that “students who have previously been described as “at-risk,” “underperforming,” “under-represented,” or minority actually represent Oregon’s best opportunity to improve overall educational outcomes.” The African American/Black Student Success Plan, through its commitment to ensuring that young African-American 7/3/2017 10:23 AM 31 children have access to high-quality culturally-responsive early learning experiences, is an important step in turning this opportunity into a reality.

African American/Black Student Success Plan Objectives and Metrics

Statement from African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group

Greetings P-20 Educators,

On behalf of the nearly 30 members of the African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group representing P-20 education, youth advocacy, health care, culturally specific community-based organizations, parent advocacy, and social justice organizations, please find objectives, strategies and accountability partners to close achievement and opportunity gaps for African American/Black students across the state of Oregon.

The African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group members engaged in an open, collaborative process and worked diligently to discuss and identify challenges and opportunities that informed the recommendations that will improve student outcomes across all academic indicators. As a group, we achieved unity of thought and purpose in contributing to the development of the statewide education plan for African American and Black students.

Working in grade level Resource Teams, the Advisory Group identified recommendations focusing on student’s academic, social emotional and developmental needs. While recommendations in the following section are presented by grade levels, there were common themes that emerged from discussions. Oregon school districts, ESD’s, post-secondary institutions, early learning providers, and other education partners are encouraged to examine their principles, practices and systems regarding the following themes. In addition, individuals and organizations are strong encouraged to engage culturally specific community-based organizations and other partners who can strengthen and support student outcomes by:

  • Providing culturally responsive pedagogy and practices;
  • Providing professional development experiences to develop the capacity of educators to meet the learning needs of African American/Black students;
  • Developing strategies to diversify the workforce to include more African American/Black staff across all role groups;
  • Addressing issues of attendance and chronic absenteeism, acknowledging systemic issues that are contributing to this problem
  • Implementing districtwide policies to address the disproportionate student discipline rates;
  • Identifying strategies and resources to ease the transition of English Learners and immigrant newcomers;
  • Improving teaching and learning experiences to promote academic achievement;
  • Employing culturally responsive strategies and resources to improve on-time graduation rates;
  • Establishing systems to strengthen and encourage parent and community engagement;
  • Examining student transitions from early childhood education to kindergarten, middle school to high school, and high school to college to promote success at the next level;
  • Providing educational and social opportunities that promote college and career readiness.
Early Childhood to Kindergarten
Objectives/Metrics Strategies Accountability Partners
Increase access to high quality, community-based early learning programs focused on providing culturally specific environments to prepare African American/Black children for kindergarten.
  1. Identify and implement culturally specific pedagogy, curriculum, investments, and assessments.
  2. Use culturally responsive positive discipline practices and supports to decrease/eliminate suspensions and expulsions.
  3. Increase the number of families receiving home visiting supports.
  4. Increase the number of students in publicly funded preschool programs at a rate comparable to that of Oregon’s diverse student population.
  5. Increase access to opportunities for parents/guardians and educators to collaborate and learn about developmental and educational needs of African American/Black children and the child care needs of families.
  1. Early Learning Division
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Increase the number of culturally and linguistically responsive educational and certification pathways for early learning providers reflective of African American/Black children in early childhood environments.
  1. Increase the numbers of African American/Black educators in the early childhood workforce.
  2. Formally request shifts and adjustments to standards and requirements for quality ratings for early learning programs to improve SPARK’s (formerly known as QRIS, Oregon’s Quality Rating and Improvement System) effectiveness.
  3. Collaborate with SPARK team to discuss inclusion of culturally responsive SPARK analysis and standards.
  1. Early Learning Division
  2. Oregon Department of Education
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Build a consistent approach and aligned pathway between early childhood and K-3 education to promote enrollment of African American/Black early learners.
  1. Increase the number of school districts and early learning hubs partnering together to coordinate culturally responsive kindergarten transition programs.
  2. Increase the population of students attending and completing kindergarten transition programs.
  3. Increase parent/guardians and early learning educator’s engagement and access to materials and processes related to these programs.
  4. Increase the amount of culturally specific information and supports available to parents/guardians and early learning educators regarding developmental and educational needs of African American/Black children and the child care needs of families.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Early Learning Division
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Build a culturally and linguistically congruent newcomer program for African students who have had little or no formal schooling in Oregon.
  1. Increase the amount of culturally specific information, supports and services available to newly-arrived African/black immigrants regarding their social, emotional, cultural and educational needs at the family level.
  2. Collaborate with resettlement agencies and Oregon’s Refugee Program (DHS) Office, school districts and African/Black community based organizations (CBOs) to provide access to basic literacy and language development for eight months prior to placements in mainstream schools.
  3. Increase advocacy and support by African/black community-based organizations to promote, encourage and remove barriers to school attendance, student engagement/performance and family engagement.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)

Kindergarten to Grade 3
Objectives/Metrics Strategies Accountability Partners
Increase the number of Oregon school districts that recruit, hire, and retain African American/Black educators at a rate comparable to that of Oregon’s African American/Black student population.
  • Baseline: 90.8% White Educators; 0.6% African American/Black Educators
  • Metric: Race/Ethnicity of Educators in the 2015-2016 school year
  1. Support educator preparation and teacher pathways programs aimed at increasing the number of African American/Black teacher candidates.
  2. Build strategic partnerships with community partners to create a pipeline to a culturally responsive and culturally diverse workforce.
  3. Utilize www.teachinoregon.gov for educator job postings and resources.
  4. Provide professional development for school district human resources staff and diverse hiring panels to promote culturally responsive/anti-bias hiring practices
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Teacher Standards and Practices Commission
  3. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  4. Chief Education Office
  5. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  6. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Increase the amount of available culturally responsive curriculum in Oregon schools for African American/Black students.
  1. Work with culturally specific community-based organizations and community partners to support the development of endorsement programs in education equity.
  2. Review the Council on Educator Advancement Report, 2016, to access strategies to promote culturally responsive pedagogy and practices.
  3. Identify and support community advocates to serve as intermediaries with parents, youth and educators to strengthen social capital of African American/Black students across Oregon schools.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Increase literacy outcomes by 6.8% per year and numeracy outcomes by 6.8% per year for African American/Black students.
  • Baseline: 32.9% for ELA and18.8% for Math
  • Metric: Percentage of students in grades 3-8, and 11 achieving Level 3 or 4 (i.e., proficiency) on statewide assessments
  1. Increase the use of culturally responsive pedagogy and practice specific to the learning styles and needs of African American/Black students.
  2. Explore multiple academic assessment measures that gauge achievement of literacy and math proficiency.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Early Learning Division
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Build a culturally and linguistically congruent newcomer program for African students who have had little or no formal schooling in Oregon.
  1. Increase the amount of culturally specific information, supports and services available to newly-arrived African/black immigrants regarding their social, emotional, cultural and educational needs at the family level.
  2. Collaborate with resettlement agencies and Oregon’s Refugee Program (DHS) Office, school districts and African/Black community based organizations (CBOs) to provide Accelerated Basic Literacy and Education (ABLE) for families and children for eight months prior to their placements in mainstream schools.
  3. Increase in-school advocacy by African/black community based organizations to promote, encourage and remove barriers to school attendance, student engagement/performance and family engagement.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)

Grade 4 to Grade 8
Objectives/Metrics Strategies Accountability Partners
Increase academic outcomes for African American/Black students in math and English language arts by increasing in median growth percentiles 5% point each year to meet the 50% threshold.
  • Baseline: Median Growth Percentile is 42% for ELA and 44% for Math
  • Metric: We use student growth percentiles to measure the growth of students on ELA and Math as compared to their academic peers. 50th percentile is, by definition, the state average.
  1. Provide explicit training on racial, linguistic and culturally responsive pedagogy and practice, and social justice for teachers and administrators.
  2. Increase access to professional development opportunities to strengthen educator proficiency across core content areas and effective classroom management techniques.
  3. Explore multiple academic assessment measures that gauge student achievement in literacy and math.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Increase attendance and reduce absenteeism rates for African American/Black students by 7% per year.
  • Baseline: Absenteeism Rate is 21.8%
  • Metric: Percent of students absent for more than 10% of their enrolled days. Note that the state chronic absenteeism group has changed the definition from “more than 10%” to “10% or more,” which will be effective beginning with 2016-17 rates.
  1. Collaborate with culturally specific community-based organizations to provide wraparound services and support to students through youth mentoring and advocacy.
  2. Create culturally responsive school, family and community partnerships that strengthen outcomes for African American/Black students and families.
  3. Increase educator professional development and support to build culturally responsive and sustainable practices and school communities.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  5. Youth Development Council
Reduce the number of discipline incidents for African American/Black students by 5% each year.
  • Baseline: 10.1%
  • Metric: Percent of students with one or more discipline incidents leading to suspension or expulsion during the 2015-16 school year.
  1. Explore measures of disproportionality in discipline data through relative rate index and risk ratios (This is work currently underway via Accountability through ESSA)
  2. Increase the number of culturally responsive partnerships with community elders, family and faith based organizations included in schools.
  3. Provide culturally specific wraparound supports and interventions for students.
  4. Utilize culturally responsive strategies to address the significant increase of discipline incidents in grade 6 and the peak that occurs in grades 7 and 8.
  5. Provide access to culturally responsive mental health advocates and services for students and families.
  6. Revise district policies and procedures to eliminate discipline disparities that push out African American/Black students.
  7. Invest in asset based, developmentally appropriate discipline and restorative justice practices and implementation.
  8. Administer annual school climate surveys to students and key stakeholders.
  9. Provide access to professional development across core content areas that include strategies that promote the use of culturally responsive pedagogy and practices and effective classroom management techniques.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Youth Development Council
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Build a culturally and linguistically congruent newcomer program for African students who have had little or no formal schooling in Oregon.
  1. Increase the amount of culturally specific information, supports and services available to newly-arrived African/black immigrants regarding their social, emotional, cultural and educational needs at the family level.
  2. Collaborate with resettlement agencies and Oregon’s Refugee Program (DHS) Office, school districts and African/Black community based organizations (CBOs) to provide Accelerated Basic Literacy and Education (ABLE) for families and children for eight months prior to their placements in mainstream schools.
  3. Increase in-school advocacy by African/black community based organizations to promote, encourage and remove barriers to school attendance, student performance and family engagement.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)

Grade 9 to Grade 12
Objectives/Metrics Strategies Accountability Partners
Increase the rate of freshman on-track for African American/Black students by 5.2% each year.
  • Baseline: 78.6%
  • Metric: Percent of students who had earned 25% of the credits needed to graduate by the end of their first year of high school.
  1. Develop strategic partnerships with existing after-school academic programs beginning in 9th grade (i.e. tutoring, enrichment, test preparation… or other areas of need).
  2. Increase availability of culturally responsive curriculum and engagement in core courses (i.e. racial and ethnic studies).
  3. Support seamless coordination with post-secondary institutions across the state.
  4. Increase access to advanced placement, International Baccalaureate, and college credit courses.
  5. Implement credit recovery strategies.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  5. Youth Development Council
  6. Institutions of Higher Education
Increase attendance and reduce absenteeism rates for African American/Black students by 7% per year.
  • Baseline: Absenteeism Rate is 21.8%
  • Metric: Percent of students absent for more than 10% of their enrolled days. Note that the state chronic absenteeism group has changed the definition from “more than 10%” to “10% or more,” which will be effective beginning with 2016-17 rates.
  1. Increase educator professional development and support to build culturally specific and sustainable practices across school communities.
  2. Revise policies and procedures to eliminate discipline disparities that push out African American/Black students.
  3. Increase in-school advocacy from culturally specific community-based organizations with school officials and staff to promote, encourage and remover barriers to school attendance.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Increase graduation rates for African American/Black students in four-year cohort by 3.7% each year and five-year cohorts by 3.6% each year. (The state goal for four year is 90% and 93% for five year)
  • Baseline: 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate in 2015-16: 66.15% 5-year Cohort Graduation Rate in 2015-16: 69.88%
  • Metric: Percent of students earning an Oregon or modified high school diploma within four or five years of beginning high school.
  1. Provide culturally responsive counseling and career services.
  2. Create access to culturally specific community-based wrap-around supports to guide students and families towards the path to graduation.
  3. Provide affordable and accessible credit recovery and acquisition opportunities quarterly and during the summer months.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  6. Institutions of Higher Education
Reduce the number of discipline incidents for African American/Black students by 5% each year.
  • Baseline: 10.1%
  • Metric: Percent of students with one or more discipline incidents leading to suspension or expulsion during the 2015-16 school year.
  1. Explore measures of disproportionality in discipline data through relative rate index and risk ratios (This is work currently underway via Accountability through ESSA)
  2. Increase the number of culturally responsive partnerships with community elders, family and faith based organizations included in schools.
  3. Provide culturally specific wraparound supports and interventions for students.
  4. Provide access to culturally specific mental health advocates and services for students and families.
  5. Revise district policies and procedures to eliminate discipline disparities that push out African American/Black students.
  6. Invest in asset based, developmentally appropriate discipline and restorative justice practices and implementation.
  7. Administer annual school climate surveys to students and key stakeholders.
  8. Provide access to professional development across core content areas that include strategies that promote the use of culturally responsive pedagogy and practices and effective classroom management techniques.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Youth Development Council
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
Build a culturally and linguistically congruent newcomer program for African students who have had little or no formal schooling in Oregon.
  1. Increase the amount of culturally specific information, supports and services available to newly-arrived African/black immigrants regarding their social, emotional, cultural and educational needs at the family level.
  2. Collaborate with resettlement agencies and Oregon’s Refugee Program (DHS) Office, school districts and African/Black community based organizations (CBOs) to provide Accelerated Basic Literacy and Education (ABLE) for families and children for eight months prior to their placements in mainstream schools.
  3. Increase in-school advocacy by African/black CBOs community based organizations to promote, encourage and remove barriers to school attendance, student engagement/performance and family engagement.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)

Higher Education
Objectives/Metrics Strategies Accountability Partners
Increase the post-secondary enrollment rate of African American/Black high school graduates and GED completers to 90%.
  • Baseline: 66%, interim target is 78%
  • Metric: Percent of students who enroll and complete 2 and 4-year institutions.
  1. Increase student and family engagement in college and career readiness planning.
  2. Build a consistent approach and aligned pathway between middle school, high school and higher education to promote college enrollment.
  3. Utilize state resources to support student, school and district college access… (i.e. HB2016, HB3072, SB418)
  1. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  2. Oregon Department of Education
  3. Chief Education Office
  4. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  5. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  6. Youth Development Council
  7. Institutions of Higher Education
Ensure than 90% of African American/Black students in post-secondary education institutions complete at least half the number of credits required by their degree of certificate.
  • Baseline: 65% for Bachelor degree seekers and 54% for Associate degree or certificate seekers. Interim targets should be 77.5% and 54%, respectively.
  • Metric: Percent of 18-19 year olds and GED completers in postsecondary institutions who complete half of the number of credits required by their degree or certificate.
  1. Identify best practices for persistence and retention for students including partnerships with culturally responsive community-based organizations to promote student access and success in post-secondary communities.
  2. Provide culturally responsive supports and resources for students experiencing inequitable outcomes in academic and social contexts.
  3. Provide culturally responsive professional development for faculty, staff and student advisors to create and maintain equitable teaching and learning communities.
  4. Increase faculty and staff diversity across 2 and 4- year college campuses.
  5. Increase diversity of cabinet, senior administrators and governing boards.
  6. Support the development of culturally responsive (students, faculty, and peer-to-peer) observation forms to inform policy and practices.
  1. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  2. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  3. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  4. Youth Development Council
  5. Institutions of Higher Education
Ensure that 40% of African American/Black high school graduates complete an Associate’s degree or certificate within three years; an additional 40% complete a Bachelor’s degree within six years.
  • Baseline: 6% for Associate degree or certificate completers and 12% for Bachelor’s degree completers. Interim target s of 23% (Associates) and 26% (Bachelor’s)
  • Metric: Percent of high school graduates that complete a Bachelor’s degree in six years and an Associate’s degree in three years.
  1. Identify best practices for student completion including partnerships with culturally responsive community-based organizations to promote student success in postsecondary communities.
  2. Partner colleges and universities to establish bridge programs that facilitate enrichment opportunities during the freshman and sophomore years (the time period when URM students are most likely to discontinue studies)
  3. Collaborate with colleges and universities to facilitate early advising for community college and transfer students providing insight on the appropriate classes to take and advising in ways that connect community college students with advisors and social networks at 4-year institutions.
  4. Enhanced advising for early identification of financial or credit gaps and provide mitigation assistance; raise funding to establish just-in-time grants of small pots of money for seniors who are at risk of dropping out without financial funding.
  5. Promote on/off campus leadership engagement opportunities.
  6. Connect transition-to-career supports (internships, mentors of color, consider social capital and resource acquisition).
  7. Provide culturally responsive professional development for faculty, staff and student advisors to create and maintain equitable teaching and reduce implicit bias.
  1. Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)
  5. Institutions of Higher Education
Encourage culturally and linguistically congruent newcomer strategies at postsecondary institutions to support African students with little or no formal schooling in Oregon.
  1. Increase the amount of culturally specific information, supports and services available to newly-arrived African/black immigrants regarding their social, emotional, cultural and educational needs at the family level.
  2. Encourage postsecondary collaboration with resettlement agencies and Oregon’s Refugee Program (DHS) Office; build upon relationships with Oregon Department of Education, school districts and African/Black community based organizations (CBOs).
  3. Support engagement with families and CBOs to identify removal of barriers to student success.
  1. Oregon Department of Education
  2. Chief Education Office
  3. Culturally Specific Community-Based Organizations
  4. Local Education Agencies (School Districts)

Funding

The African American/Black Student Success Plan Advisory Group has focused attention to the financial aspects of supporting the recommendations in the African American/Black Student Success Plan. The work of closing opportunity and achievement gaps for African American/Black students comes with the understanding that financial capital can be critical in whether programs have the resources to move the dial for African America/Black students. The graphic below illustrates the varieties of programs highlighted in the Plan recommendations above across the PreK-20 systems. Dollar amounts are calculated using the number of schools, number of students, and cost per student. Several assumptions related to the program staff, participation, and hours should be noted:

Tutoring

(2 hours per week): Requires 1.0 additional teacher FTE in each elementary and middle school and 1.5 in each high school. Each student gets 1-2 hours of tutoring each week.

Same number of staff required, but additional staff are from culturally specific community-based organizations at an hourly rate of $20.

Summer School

(3 weeks): Requires 1 teacher in each school teaching summer school for 3 weeks (15 days).

Counseling/Mentoring

Requires .25 additional counselor FTE in each elementary and middle school and .5 in each high school.

Family Outreach

Requires .125 additional teacher/counselor FTE in each elementary and middle school and .25 in each high school. This includes funding for family outreach through programs and organizations that serve a variety of early learning environments.

Early Learning Services

Requires 1.0 FTE for each Early Learning Hub to provide comprehensive support to connect and support the facilitation of pre-school to kindergarten transition.

Same number of staff required, but additional staff are from culturally specific community-based organizations at an hourly rate of $20.

Professional Development for Educators

Requires an additional 8 hours of professional development time for all teachers in each school to improve cultural awareness and pedagogy.

Assumption for All Programs

For the All Students estimates, assumes all African American students receive additional services, not just those who are not on track academically. For the Economically Disadvantaged Students estimates, assumes all economically disadvantaged African American students receive additional services, not just those who are not on track academically.

Assumptions for Pre-K

Assume 40,000 total statewide. Same percent of AfricanAmerican as elementary schools. Same cost per student as elementary students.

Assumptions at Post-Secondary

2.5% are African-American based on share that are African-American in college-going data. Professors/teachers do not need additional prof. development. Same cost per student as high school students. 50% of community college students need additional services.

The dollar amount highlighted in yellow is funding it would require every biennium for eight years to fund programs targeted at closing gaps for African American/Black students.

References

  1. Banks, J. A., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W. D., Irvine, J. J., Nieto, S., ... & Stephan, W. G. (2001). “Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society.” Phi Delta Kappan, 83, 3, 196-198.
  2. Gay, Geneva. Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press, 2010.
  3. Nieto, Sonia. "Teaching as political work: Learning from courageous and caring teachers." The Longfellow lecture (2006).
  4. Chronic Absenteeism Report, May 2016. http://education.oregon.gov/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/CEdO_ChronicAbsenteeismReport__May_2016-WEB.pdf
  5. 2016 Educator Equity Report. Retrieved October 2016 from http://tspc.oregon.gov/publications/EducatorEquityReport_CEdO_July_2016.pdf
  6. Council on Educator Advancement Report. Retrieved December 2016 from http://education.oregon.gov/council-on-educator-advancement/
  7. State of Black Oregon, 2015. https://ulpdx.org/programs/advocacy-and-civicengagement/advocacy-and-public-policy/publication_archive/state-of-black-oregon2015/
  8. Moran, C., Villamil Tinajero, J., Stobbe, J., & Tinajero, I. (1993). Strategies for working with overage students. In A. F. Ada (Ed.), The Power of Two Languages. New York: MacMillan/McGraw Hill.
  9. Olsen, L., Jaramillo, A., McCall-Perez, A., & White, J. (1999). Igniting change for immigrant students: Portraits of three high schools. Oakland, CA: California Tomorrow
  10. Dufresne, J. & Hall, S. (1997). LEAP English academy: An alternative high school for newcomers to the United States. MinneTESOL Journal, 14, 1-17.

    Glossary of Terms

    Common P-20 Acronyms and Definitions

    ACRONYM TERM
    ADMAverage Daily Membership
    CBOCommunity-Based Organization
    CIPContinuous Improvement Plan
    EDU.S. Department of Education
    EDIEquity, Diversity, and Inclusion
    ELEnglish Learner
    ESDEducation Service District
    FRLFree or Reduced Lunch
    GEDGeneral Education Degree
    IHEInstitution of Higher Education
    K-12Kindergarten to Grade 12 Programs
    LEALocal Education Agency
    ODEOregon Department of Education
    P-20Preschool to Post-Secondary Grade Programs
    RJRestorative Justice
    SEAState Education Agency
    SESSocioeconomic Status
    SIPSchool Improvement Plan
    SPEDSpecial Education
    TAGTalented and Gifted Programs

    Accountability System

    When each state sets academic standards for what every child should know and learn. Student academic achievement is measured for every child, every year. The results of these annual tests are reported to the public.

    Achievement Gap

    Refers to outputs—the unequal or inequitable distribution of educational results and benefits.

    Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)

    A measure of yearly progress toward reaching state academic standards. AYP is the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and schools must achieve each year.

    African American

    An American who has African and especially black African ancestors

    Alignment

    Making academic content standards, performance standards, assessment and instruction consistent so they can provide the most help to students in reaching state learning standards.

    Assessment

    Another word for test; tests are aligned with academic standards at the statewide assessment level.

    Average Daily Membership

    The aggregate days membership of a school during a certain period divided by the number of days the school was actually in session during the same period.

    Black

    Having and/or identifying with African ancestry.

    Communities of Color/Students of Color

    Term used to describe communities of people who are not identified as White, emphasizing common experiences of racism.

    Culture

    The beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time. A particular society that has its own beliefs, ways of life, art, etc. A way of thinking, behaving, or working that exists in a place or organization (such as a business)

    Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students. (Gay, 2000; 2010)

    Disaggregated Data

    When test results are sorted into groups of students who are economically disadvantaged, from racial and ethnic minority groups, have disabilities, or have limited English fluency. This practice allows parents and teachers to see more than just the average score for their child's school. Instead, parents and teachers can see how each student group is performing.

    Disproportionate

    Having or showing a difference that is not fair, reasonable, or expected; too large or too small in relation to something.

    Disproportionate Discipline

    means disproportionate rates of suspensions and expulsions for African American/Black students compared to their white classmates” who commit similar infractions and who have similar discipline histories.”

    Diversity

    The variance or difference amongst people. This variance includes race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion nationality, language preference, socioeconomic status, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity and others. These differences are tied to a variety of other aspects of diversity such as experience, work styles, life experience, education, beliefs and ideas.

    Ethnicity

    A category of people who identify with each other based on common language, ancestral, social, cultural, or national experiences.

    Education Equity

    Refers to the transformed ways in which systems and individuals habitually operate to ensure that every individual in whatever environment has the greatest opportunity to achieve, enhanced by the resources and supports necessary to realize competence, excellence, independence, responsibility, and self-sufficiency.

    Inclusion

    Is a state of being valued, respected and supported. It’s about focusing on the needs of every individual and ensuring the right conditions are in place for each person to achieve his or her full potential. Inclusion should be reflected in an organization’s culture, practices and relationships. Inclusion refers to the degree to which diverse individuals are able to participate fully in the decision-making process within an organization or group. While a truly “inclusive” group is necessarily diverse, a “diverse” group may or may not be “inclusive.”

    Opportunity Gap

    Refers to the ways in which race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, English proficiency, community wealth, familial situations, or other factors contribute to or perpetuate lower educational aspirations, achievement, and attainment for certain groups of students; places limitations on appropriate resources as a result.

    Opportunity Youth

    Youth ages 16-24 who are not enrolled in school and are not working.

    Pedagogy

    The art, science, or profession of teaching.

    Postsecondary Institution

    An educational institution beyond high school; community college, four-year institution, other career training program.

    Race

    Refers to a recent idea (social construct) created by western Europeans following exploration across the world to account for differences among people and justify colonization, conquest, enslavement, and social hierarchy among humans. It is most often linked to a person’s physical appearance such as skin color, eye color, hair color, etc.

    Restorative Justice

    Restorative justice repairs the harm caused by crime. When victims, offenders and community members meet to decide how to do that, the results can be transformational. It emphasizes accountability, making amends, and — if they are interested — facilitated meetings between victims, offenders, and other persons. (Source: restorativejustice.org)

    Refugee vs. Immigrant Student

    An immigrant is someone who chooses to resettle to another country; a refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her home country.

    Students

    Refers to students enrolled in Oregon public and private schools in grades K-12.

    Supplemental Services

    Outside tutoring or academic assistance available to students from low-income families who are attending schools that have been identified, for two years, as in need of improvement. Parents can choose the appropriate services for their child from a list of approved providers. The school district will purchase the services.

    Title I

    Federal funds provided to schools to help students who are behind academically or who are at risk of falling behind. Funding is based on the number of low-income children in school and is determined by the schools' free lunch program. This is the largest single source of federal money to schools and is used to supplement, but not replace, state and local funds.

    Title IX

    A comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity.


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