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Latino/a/x & Indigenous Student Success Plan

For a PDF version of the Latino/a/x & Indigenous* Student Success Plan in English click here

For a PDF version of the Latino/a/x & Indigenous* Student Success Plan in Spanish click here


Table of Contents

Introduction

Signed into law in May of 2019, the Student Success Act (Oregon House Bill 3427) is an historic opportunity for Oregon schools. The bill makes significant investments in programs to support historically underserved students. When fully implemented this act will invest approximately $2 billion per biennium for early learning and K-12 education.

The Student Success Act marks a turning point for education in Oregon:

  • When fully implemented, our state will see an additional $1 billion investment in education each year.
  • This offers a new opportunity to improve outcomes for students who have been historically underserved by our system

The Latino/a/x and Indigenous* community in Oregon is diverse and complex. This community is multiracial, multilingual, and comprised of dozens of countries of origin each with its own unique culture and history. Language and terms used to describe this community like Latino, Latina, or Latinx invisibilize our indigenous and African/Black ancestry and at the same time are evolving to be inclusive of non-binary gender individuals.

In Oregon, Latino/a/x and Indigenous* make up nearly one in four students and are the largest nonwhite population in the state, and this number only continues to grow. Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students are already the majority population (over 50%) in ten school districts across the state. This plan is critical in building understanding of this population and addressing strategies for educational success.

The Latino/a/x & Indigenous* Student Success Plan seeks to address historic and current systemic inequities experienced by Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students through focused investments and partnerships with community based organizations, school districts, early learning providers, and higher education. The plan centers equity and community by ensuring those closest to the problem help develop and design the solutions. Through this effort, we will work to close the opportunity gap and eliminate educational disparities to ensure all our students can thrive.

We must ensure the strategies we develop and implement will lead to better outcomes. Oregon must act now. The Student Success Act and the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan are a roadmap to get there.


History of Latino/a/x Communities in Oregon

Latino/a/x communities have had a presence in Oregon for centuries. Beginning in the 1800’s, Mexican citizens would travel freely between Mexico and the Oregon Territory. Mexican Vaqueros contributed to Oregon’s early ranching industry in the central and eastern parts of the state. This was possible then because until 1848, the northern border of Mexico was only a few miles south of present day Ashland, Oregon (Nosotros). The Mexican-American War of 1846-1848 drastically changed political borders and increased tensions between the two nations.

During the 1930’s and 1940’s, Mexican laborers were critical in saving and growing Oregon’s agricultural industry. When the US became involved in World War II, it established the Bracero Program to bring temporary contracted labor from Mexico. According to the law, Braceros were guaranteed a minimum wage, health care, and adequate housing, however many of these promises were not kept. Workers experienced substandard housing, unsafe working conditions, and faced racial discrimination. The Bracero Program brought 15,136 to Oregon.

After the end of the war, Oregon’s agricultural industry continued to grow and more and more Mexican workers came to the state, this time bringing their families with them. Mexican communities were growing across the state in cities such as Woodburn, Hillsboro, Ontario, Medford, and the North Coast. The families of agricultural workers often lived in labor camps where they faced poor working and living conditions. They also experienced racial discrimination and social isolation due to growing tensions between white communities and communities of color across the country.

These conditions along with a growing Civil Rights movement nationally catalyzed Mexican American community members to begin organizing politically. The church played a role in helping Mexican Americans organize and begin advocating for improved working and living conditions. One of the first organizations fighting for the rights of Mexican American workers and families in Oregon was the Valley Migrant League (VML) out of Woodburn in 1964. Over the next ten years, the VML worked to provide services to migrant workers and their families around housing, health, education, and advocacy. Other organizations around the state also emerged to support and align with the national Chicano Rights Movement. These include Centro Cultural of Washington County in 1972, Virginia Garcia Memorial Health Center in 1975, and Pineros Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste (PCUN) in 1977.

  • Oregon’s Latino/a/x population is growing at a rate faster than the national rate: 12 percent of the state’s population is now Latino/a/x, representing 72 percent growth since 2000. The number of U.S.-born Latino/a/x Oregonians has increased 21 percent, compared to 1 percent growth in the number of foreign-born Latino/a/x Oregonians. While most of Oregon’s Latinos/as/xs are U.S.-born (64 percent), a sizable minority were born elsewhere, including approximately 96,000 undocumented immigrants.
  • A majority of Oregon’s Latinos/as/xs are of Mexican descent, but the state boasts representation from multiple Central and South American countries as well.
  • The striking demographic difference between Oregon’s Latino/a/x population and its white population is age: Oregon Latinos/a/x are significantly younger than white Oregonians. The median age for Latinos is 24 years, compared to 41 years for the white population. (Latinos in Oregon: Trends and Opportunities in a Changing State, Oregon Community Foundation)

The 1980’s and 1990’s saw increased migration from Central American countries. Economic conditions and military turmoil in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador forced many families and individuals from their homes. Currently, nearly 5% or around 20,000 of Oregon’s Latinos/as/xs are of Central American descent. Additionally, there are small but growing populations of indigenous speaking communities. For many of these communities, Spanish may be their second or third language. Primarily languages include Nahuatl, Mixtec, Purepecha, Mayan and many other regional languages and dialects. We do not yet know the depth and breadth of these language communities though efforts are currently underway to track family language or origin data across the state.

Finally, immigration policies have had a significant impact on Oregon’s Latino/a/x and Indigenous* populations. Nationally, debate continues around comprehensive immigration reform and how to address the needs of DREAMERS - individuals brought to the US as children and who have grown up almost entirely in this country. Policies which seek to return DREAMERS to their home countries would have devastating consequences as many of these young people do not remember the countries where they were born. Oregon has seen its own statewide policies impact immigrants including the right to a driver’s license, maintaining the state’s sanctuary 30-year policy, access to the Oregon Health Plan for immigrant children, and granting in-state tuition for undocumented college students.

It is important to note that both in Oregon and nationally, the rate of immigration is declining and the growing Latino/a/x population are from those born in the US. Nearly two-thirds of Oregon’s Latino/a/x individuals are US born.

The rich diversity and complexity of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* communities in Oregon must not be overlooked. An individual of South American descent born and raised in Portland will have a very different experience than a Mexican who migrated to Eastern Oregon. Each community and community-withincommunity has its own history, culture, and priorities. Educational practices and policies will not work if they are designed as a one-size-fits-all. This is why community engagement efforts must take into account this diversity to be effective and impactful.


Student Success Act

Signed into law in May of 2019, the Student Success Act (Oregon House Bill 3427) is an historic opportunity for Oregon schools. Equity is the driving vision behind the Student Success Act. The bill makes significant investments in programs to support historically underserved students. When fully implemented this act will invest approximately $2 billion per biennium for early learning and K-12 education.

Education equity is the equitable implementation of policy, practices, procedures, and legislation that translates into resource allocation, education rigor, and opportunities for historically and currently marginalized youth, students, and families including civil rights protected classes. This means the dismantling and restructuring of systems and institutions that create a dichotomy of beneficiaries over oppressed & marginalized peoples.

Student Success Act funding is divided into three key areas:

  • Early Learning Account (20%): Will fund investments focused on children under the age of five and their families. Funding will support the expansion of existing programs, the creation of new programs and support for communities to deliver early learning. New and expanded programs will help narrow gaps for low-income families to access early care and education programs.
  • Student Investment Account (50%): Close to $500 million in non-competitive grant money for all Oregon school districts and eligible charter schools. New money has two purposes: meet students’ mental and behavioral health needs; increase academic achievement and reduce academic disparities for:
    • Students of color;
    • Students with disabilities;
    • Emerging bilingual students; and
    • Students navigating poverty, homelessness, and foster care; and other students that have historically experienced disparities in our schools.
  • The Statewide Education Initiatives (30%): This will pay for the creation of new programs or expansion of existing programs at the Oregon Department of Education aimed at improving educational opportunities for Oregon students, especially historically underserved student groups.

Funded under the Statewide Education Initiatives account, the Latino/a/x & Indigenous* Student Success Plan seeks to address historic and current systemic inequities experienced by Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students through focused investments and partnerships with community based organizations, school districts, early learning providers, and higher education. The plan centers equity and community by ensuring those closest to the problem help develop and design the solutions.

Through this plan, ODE will award grants to early learning hubs, providers of early learning services, school districts, post-secondary institutions, and community-based organizations, to implement the strategies in plan. ODE will submit a biennial report every other year to the Interim Committee of the Legislative Assembly. This report will include possible changes in law to plan and also budgetary increases needed.

Advisory Group

Additionally, ODE convenes the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Advisory Group. Advisory Group members provide knowledge, suggestions, and recommendations to advise the department for the development and implementation of the Plan. The Advisory Group also establishes eligibility criteria for grants and funding, and helps develop outcomes to measure success. The Advisory Group consists of individuals representing:

  • Urban and rural communities;
  • Indigenous and immigrant populations;
  • English language learners;
  • Individuals with disabilities;
  • Parents and students;
  • Youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or another minority gender or sexual orientation;
  • Community-based organizations serving Latino or Hispanic youth and families; and
  • Education stakeholders, including representatives of the Early Learning Division, the Youth Development Division and the Higher Education Coordinating Commission.

The Advisory Group meets regularly throughout the year and works collaboratively with ODE to ensure successful implementation of the Plan. There are currently 24 members on the Advisory Group representing a diverse range of perspectives from across the state.


Success Plan Strategies

As part of the Student Success Act, the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan requires that we address the following:

  1. The disparities experienced by Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in every indicator of academic success, as documented by the department’s statewide report card and other relevant reports related to plan students;
  2. The historical practices leading to disproportionate outcomes for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students; and
  3. The educational needs of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students from early childhood through post-secondary education as determined by examining culturally appropriate best practices in this state and across the nation.

Values

This means the following Success Plan and all its strategies will focus on closing the educational opportunity gap for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. The following values guide and shape our approach:

  • Student Centered:

    This plan is focused on closing the educational opportunity gap faced by Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. This means all of the strategies will ultimately lead to creating conditions and measurable outcomes for student success in the K-12 school system.
  • Policy and Systems Change:

    Systemic problems require systemic solutions. This means strategies in the plan should focus on addressing the systemic and root causes of educational disparities. This means developing policy solutions at all levels to ensure our outcomes are long-term and sustainable. Additionally, we must center the voices and experiences of those most impacted by oppression to develop systemic solutions.
  • Centering Cultural and Community Assets:

    Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students and their families bring a wealth of cultural knowledge, experiences, history, and leadership. Solutions should be designed in partnership with family and community leadership. This approach sees family and community as thought partners rather than simply as recipients of services.

Our Approach: People, Practice, Policy

A major focus of this plan is creating conditions for longterm systemic change. The educational opportunity gap between white students and students of color exists because of years of racism and policy decisions built into our educational system. Systemic problems require systemic solutions. This means examining, fixing, and if needed, dismantling policies which contribute to educational disparities. Objectives in this Success Plan will use a three-part approach using the following three categories:

  • People -

    Includes programs and services that benefit individuals or groups of people. Usually involves providing a service or benefit on a onetime or on-going basis.
  • Practice -

    Involves educator training and professional development to address cultural understanding. Evolving practices can lead to new policies, pedagogical practices, and new ways of engaging students and families with a focus on disrupting inequity and racism.
  • Policy -

    Involves re-examining, updating, and/ or dismantling policies and institutional practices which advertently or inadvertently create disparities for students and families. Policy and systems change has the potential to be far more impactful than simply providing programs. Policy solutions can impact the entire system whether the system is a school or an entire district. The focus is on fixing the system, not the student.

Success Plan Objectives

As per the Student Success Act, the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan must provide strategies to address the following educational objectives:

  1. Address the disproportionate rate of disciplinary incidents involving Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students compared to all students in the education system;
  2. Increase parental engagement in the education of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students;
  3. Increase the engagement of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in educational activities before and after regular school hours;
  4. Increase early childhood education and kindergarten readiness for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students;
  5. Improve literacy and numeracy levels among Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students between kindergarten and third grade;
  6. Support Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students as they transition to and through middle school grades and as they transition to and through high school grades to maintain and improve academic performance;
  7. Support culturally responsive pedagogy and practices from early childhood through postsecondary education;
  8. Support the development of culturally responsive curricula from early childhood
  9. through post-secondary education;
  10. Increase attendance of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in community colleges and professional certification programs; and
  11. Increase attendance of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in four-year post-secondary institutions of education.

These objectives guide and inform ODE’s statewide investments, and establish actions and outcomes for the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Grants. These grants are made available to community-based organizations, school districts, educational service districts, post-secondary institutions, and early-learning providers to address the goals and objectives in the plan.

In addition to informing the grants, the objectives and strategies in this Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Success Plan must also align and intersect with other efforts, success plans, and investments made by ODE and across the Student Success Act.

Responsibility & Accountability

In order to create the conditions for systems and policy change, it is important to understand which institutions, entities, and groups are responsible for which levels of change. This ensures the expectations for change and outcomes we develop are right-sized and appropriate. It also demonstrates the collaborative and intersectional nature of this body of work by ensuring different stakeholders are being held accountable for different measures and outcomes.

State Level:Oregon Department of Education (ODE)

  • Supporting, funding, facilitating and managing the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan and the Advisory Group. They are also responsible for for
  • Collecting and reporting on statewide data submitted by districts and ESDs
  • Will analyzes data to measure the impact of the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan
  • Ensuring alignment of this plan with other Student Success Act initiatives
  • Work with the Oregon Legislature to monitor bills and policies and make recommendations for funding

Regional Level:Eduactional service districts

  • Address school and district practices and policies towards equity and anti-racism
  • Engage community in leadership and decision-making for systems and policy change
  • Identify and develop educator professional development to ensure practices focus on equity and anti-racism
  • Establish partnerships with culturally-specific community based organizations to develop and implement Success Plan outcomes
  • Collect student data and report to ODE and community stakeholders

Local Level:School districts

  • Address school and district practices and policies towards equity and anti-racism
  • Engage community in leadership and decision-making for systems and policy change
  • Identify and develop educator professional development to ensure practices focus on equity and anti-racism
  • Establish partnerships with culturally-specific community based organizations to develop and implement Success Plan outcomes
  • Collect student data and report to ODE and community stakeholders

Local Level:Colleges & universities

  • Engage community in leadership and decision-making for systems and policy change
  • Identify and develop educator professional development to ensure practices focus on equity and anti-racism
  • Establish partnerships with culturally-specific community based organizations to develop and implement Success Plan outcomes
  • Collect student data and report to HECC and community stakeholders
  • Establish partnerships with schools and districts to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student enrollment

Community Level:Community-based organizations (CBO)

  • Organize and engage families and community members for leadership development, systems and policy change
  • Provide culturally-responsive services
  • Establish partnerships with schools and districts to develop and implement Success Plan outcomes
  • Engage community in leadership and decision-making for systems and policy change
  • Inform local, district, and statewide policy

Community Level:Early learning providers

  • Assess impact of educator practices and policies on student educational outcomes
  • Address practices and policies towards equity and anti-racism
  • Engage community in leadership and decision-making for systems and policy change
  • Align with Early Learning Division statewide goals
  • Collect student data and report to ELD and community stakeholders
  • Establish partnerships with culturally-specific community based organizations to develop and implement Success Plan outcomes

Scaling Up Using a Phased Approach

The work of the Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan is long-term and it will take multiple years before we see significant measurable results across the state. There are many stakeholders relationships which need to be built, new practices need to be researched and developed, and policies need to be examined, dismantled, or created in partnership with community. To accomplish the work of this Success Plan and ensure we are measuring appropriate and meaningful outcomes, we need a phased approach for growth and scaling up. With a phased approach, we will demonstrate how outcomes and benchmarks are being met to then scale up the Plan’s efforts and investments, to seek additional funding in future bienniums.

Phase 1 (2021-2023)

  • Building Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Advisory Group
  • Launch full Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan
  • ODE will invest $4 million in grant funding to community-based organizations, school districts, early learning providers, ESDs, and higher education partners
  • ODE will work to align goals and outcomes across Student Success Act investments
  • ODE will develop policy recommendations and budgetary increases for next biennium to the Oregon Legislature
  • ODE will develop an internal and external plan to identify policy and systemic changes needed across the agency
  • ODE will build a community of stakeholders across the state including grantees, community-based organizations, philanthropic partners, and school districts in alignment with the SIA Community Engagement Toolkit.
  • ODE will identify and bring on external evaluator to develop evaluation and assessment for ODE and for funded grantees
  • Funded grantees will focus on the following outcomes:
    • Building capacity for community-based organizations to impact local and statewide practice and policy changes.
    • Building and developing family and community engagement structures and leadership for decision-making.
    • Identifying and developing educator professional development centered in anti-racism and equity.
    • Developing policy recommendations for systemic change in partnership with the community.

Phase 2 (2023-2025)

  • ODE implement systems and policy changes internally and across the state
  • ODE will develop policy recommendations for the Oregon Legislature based on outcomes demonstrated in Phase 1
  • ODE will invest additional dollars in grant funding to community-based organizations, school districts, early learning providers, ESDs, and higher education partners
  • ODE will support existing funded grants and grow the cohort of grantees with additional grant funding
  • ODE will further strengthen alignment across Student Success Act initiatives.
  • ODE will work with external evaluator will develop outcomes focused on measuring impact to student learning and closing the opportunity gap
  • Funded grantees will focus on the following outcomes:
    • Implementing and assessing new practices focused on improving educational outcomes for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
    • Moving forward and implementing policy recommendations locally at school districts or statewide.
    • Ensuring family and community engagement leadership bodies are impacting decision-making for policy and systems change.
    • Implementing and assessing the impacts of educator professional development.
    • Developing and implementing school and district policy recommendations as related to the Success Plan goals and outcomes.

Phase 3 (2025 and beyond)

  • Continue growing and supporting funded grantees and community of stakeholders.
  • Develop additional policy and fiscal recommendations.

Goal 1: Student Success

All Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students enrolled in K-12 public schools have the opportunity for an educational experience centered in excellence, academic rigor, and culturally responsive approaches. The approaches and objectives will focus on building family and community partnerships with the goal of identifying and developing systemic practices and policy recommendations to eliminate the educational opportunity gap.

OBJECTIVE: Improve literacy and numeracy levels among plan students between kindergarten and grade three.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Educational disparities exist for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. The following table highlights differences in 4th and 8th grade reading and math assessments:

Developing strong reading and math skills between kindergarten to 3rd grade years is critical for creating a strong educational foundation for success in the later grades. We must invest in strategies to ensure Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students are performing equally by the time they reach the 4th grade.

ACTIONS

  • Identify, develop, and implement targeted, culturally-specific efforts to improve reading and math scores for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students by fourth grade. (People)
  • Develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families to identify culturally relevant practices related to math and reading engagement. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development focused on culturally responsive teaching in reading and math. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify practice and policy changes needed improve educational outcomes for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop new accountability and progress measures for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students’ math and reading scores. (Policy)
  4th Grade Reading  8th Grade Reading
  Latino/a/x  All  Latino/a/x  All
  14% Proficient  
  25% Proficient  
  19% Proficient  
  29% Proficient 

  4th Grade Math
  8th Grade Math
  Latino/a/x
  All
  Latino/a/x  All
  16% Proficient  
  29% Proficient  
  11% Proficient  
  22% Proficient  

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for new classroom practices to improve reading scores for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
  • Recommendations for new classroom practices to improve math scores for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
  • Recommendations for new family engagement efforts related to reading and math.
  • New partnerships established between culturally specific organizations and schools focused on improving reading and math scores.
  • New educator professional development practices centered in anti-racism and culturally responsive teaching.
  • New guidance for family engagement developed
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures.

Alignment:

  • Educator Advancement Council
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Early Learning Division
  • Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Office of Indian Education

OBJECTIVE: Support culturally responsive pedagogy and practices from early childhood through postsecondary education.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Culturally responsive approaches to teaching are important to Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student success as they adapt the classroom learning and teaching methods to the students and their families in ways which respect and acknowledge their culture, language, and history.

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop culturally responsive, educator professional development classroom practices. (Practice)
  • Support development of new and emerging culturally responsive pedagogy practices. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify practice and policy changes to support culturally responsive pedagogy. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop on-going partnerships between schools and culturally-specific organizations to implement culturally responsive practices. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop new accountability and progress measures for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for new, culturally-responsive pedagogy and practices centered in anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures.
  • Establishment of new partnerships with culturallyspecific organizations to implement culturally responsive pedagogy and practices.

Alignment:

  • Educator Advancement Council
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Early Learning Division
  • Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Office of Indian Education

OBJECTIVE: Support the development of culturally responsive curricula from early childhood through post-secondary education.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Culturally responsive content in the classroom focuses on students’ culture, history, and language has been shown to positively impact student engagement. This content will equip students with a robust historical narrative that centers on the histories, contributions, and perspectives of historically, traditionally and/or currently marginalized communities and individuals. This objective is part of a larger effort to increase and broaden Ethnic Studies across Oregon.

ACTIONS

  • Develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* community to identify culturally responsive content. (People)
  • Identify and develop curricula, content, and instructional materials focused on Latino/a/x and Indigenous* culture, history, and language across all grades. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop school and district policies and investments needed to support culturally specific curricula for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop new accountability and progress measures for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for culturally responsive curricula for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures.
  • Recommendations for practice and policy alignment with Ethnic Studies (HB 2845/HB 2023)
  • New partnerships established with culturallyspecific organizations around culturally responsive curriculum engagement.
  • Recommendations for fiscal investments needed to support culturally responsive curriculum.

Alignment:

  • Educator Advancement Council
  • Tribal History/Shared History
  • Holocaust and other Genocides
  • Ethnic Studies and Inclusive Education
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Early Learning Division
  • Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Office of Indian Education

OBJECTIVE: Support Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students as they transition to and through middle school grades and as they transition to and through high school grades to maintain and improve academic performance.

WHY IT MATTERS:

A successful transition to middle school is critical for creating a strong foundation for success in high school. Transition supports which are culturally responsive can reduce student dropout rates. Currently, Latino/a/x males are 63% more likely to dropout than white males while Latino/a/x females are 34% more likely to dropout than white females. We must invest in efforts to ensure Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students and are prepared for graduation and beyond. Schools should invest in efforts to support students in their educational journey.

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop new programmatic efforts and staff supports to ensure successful transitions for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students entering middle school and high school. (People)
  • Develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families to support successful student transitions. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify school and district investments needed to support Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student transitions. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop on-going partnerships between schools and culturally-specific organizations to support student transitions. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop new accountability and progress measures for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Establishment of new family engagement efforts related to successful transitions.
  • Establishment of new partnerships with culturally specific organizations related to successful transitions.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures.
  • Recommendations on staffing indeed to support successful students transitions.

Alignment:

  • Educator Advancement Council
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Office of Education, Innovation, and Improvement
  • Early Indicator and Intervention System

OBJECTIVE: Address the disproportionate rate of disciplinary incidents involving Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students compared to all students in the education system.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Students of color are more adversely impacted by school discipline which feeds the school-to-prison pipeline. Latino/a/x students are 22% more likely than white students to have one or more discipline incidents in a school year.

Efforts to reduce disproportionate discipline affecting students of color can lead to social, emotional, and academic improvements for students of color.

ACTIONS

  • Develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students and community to identify new practices related to behavioral health. (People)
  • Identify, develop, and implement new behavioral health resources for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Develop community engagement opportunities to review school and district policies related to behavioral health and discipline. (Policy)
  Student Group 
  Percent with One or More Discipline Incidents in 2019-20   
  Total   4.9%
  Hispanic/Latino/a/x   
  5/5%
  Multi-Racial  5.4%
  White  4.5%

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for improving disciplinary policies and practices.
  • Recommendations for increasing behavioral health resources.
  • New educator professional development practices identified.
  • Establishment of new family engagement efforts related to behavioral health.
  • Recommendations for anti-racism policies and practices.

Alignment with other educational initiatives and agenices:

  • Safe and Inclusive Schools
  • African American/Black Student Success Plan
  • American Indian Native American Student Success Plan
  • LGBTQ2SIA+ Student Success Plan
  • Youth Development Division

OBJECTIVE: Increase the engagement of plan students in educational activities before and after regular school hours

WHY IT MATTERS:

Engagement in before and after school activities provides students with academically enriching activities to promote their social and emotional development. Barriers such as poverty and lack of access impact students’ ability to participate. Efforts should seek to address these barriers by examining root causes.

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop culturally responsive before and after school programs for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (People)
  • Identify and develop partnerships with culturally specific organizations to develop before and after school activities. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify barriers to Latino/a/x & Indigenous* student participation in before and after school activities. (Policy)
  • Develop community engagement opportunities to review school and district policies related to before and after school activities. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for improving before and after school participation for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
  • Recommendations for culturally responsive before and after school activities.
  • New anti-racism policies and practices established.
  • New partnerships established with culturally-specific organizations to provide before and after school activities.
  • Establishment of new family engagement efforts related to before and after school activities.

Alignment:

  • Safe and Inclusive Schools
  • Office of Enhancing Student Opportunities

Goal 2: Early Learning Readiness

A strong educational foundation begins before kindergarten and all Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students should have the opportunity for a high quality early educational experience. The approaches and objectives will focus on building family and community partnerships with the goal of identifying and developing systemic practices and policies and policy recommendations to improve kindergarten readiness for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.

OBJECTIVE: Increase early childhood education and kindergarten readiness for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Children thrive when they are healthy, confident, and filled with wonder. They learn and grow in home and care environments that support their physical health and social-emotional development, and have access to learning opportunities and experiences that promote school and life readiness. (Oregon Early Learning Division)

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop culturally responsive, early learning efforts for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* children. (People)
  • Identify and develop partnerships with culturally specific organizations to develop before and after school activities. (People)
  • Identify and develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families for kindergarten readiness. (People)
  • Identify and develop culturally relevant, educator professional development practices for kindergarten readiness. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop on-going partnerships between schools and culturally-specific organizations to support culturally responsive early learning practices. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop new accountability and progress measures for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Recommendations for new culturally responsive, early learning practices to improve kindergarten readiness for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.
  • Recommendations for new family engagement efforts related to kindergarten readiness.
  • New partnerships established between culturally specific organizations and schools focused on kindergarten readiness.
  • New guidance for family engagement developed.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures.

Alignment:

  • Early Learning Division
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • African American/Black Student Education
  • American Indian Native American Student Education

Goal 3: Family and Community Leadership

Strong family and community engagement is critical for student success. Policy solutions must be developed in partnership with those closest to the problem, families most impacted by oppression. Leadership structures must also be inclusive and accessible to Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families and community members. The approaches and objectives will focus on building family and community leadership engagement with the goal of developing decision-making structures towards policy change.

OBJECTIVE: Increase parent, family, guardian, and community engagement in the education of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.

WHY IT MATTERS:

When making decisions which impact school and district policies and investments, it is essential to engage and partner with families and communities. Only through partnerships built on trust will schools and communities develop solutions which reflect their communities needs.

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop Latino/a/x and Indigenous* leadership development efforts for families and community members. (People)
  • Identify and develop partnerships with culturally specific organizations for leadership development. (People)
  • Identify and develop district practices to build and sustain Latino/a/x and Indigenous* community leadership and decision-making. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop on-going partnerships between schools and culturally-specific organizations to support family and community leadership in policy and decision-making. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop opportunities for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* community leadership structure for policy and decision-making. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • Establishment of new Latino/a/x and Indigenous* community leadership development.
  • New partnerships established between culturally specific organizations and schools focused on kindergarten readiness.
  • New guidance for community leadership to impact school and district policy and decision-making.

Alignment:

  • Office of Education, Innovation, and Improvement
  • Student Investment Account
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion

Goal 4: Strengthening Pathways to Higher Education

Currently in Oregon, Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students represent approximately 24 percent of the total K-12 student population, however, they only represent about 14 percent of students in higher education. By 2025, Oregon wants to see 40 percent of young adult Oregonians with a four-year degree or more, and 40 percent will complete a two-year degree or short-term career certificate. This means we need focused investments and efforts in Oregon’s K-12 schools to ensure Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students can pursue a higher education. The approaches and objectives will focus on building family and community partnerships with the goal of identifying and developing systemic practices and policy recommendations to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college student enrollment.

OBJECTIVE: Increase attendance of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in community colleges and professional certification programs.

WHY IT MATTERS:

Oregon’s community colleges currently serve over a quarter-million students with approximately 14 percent who are Latino/a/x and Indigenous*. They offer students an accessible and affordable path to higher education either as an entry point towards a four-year degree or a career path.

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop new culturally responsive efforts to increase Latino/a/x & Indigenous* student college enrollment. (People)
  • Identify and develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families for college readiness. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop partnerships between schools, districts, and community colleges to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student enrollment. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop partnerships with culturally specific organizations for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college readiness. (People)
  • Identify policy solutions and investments needed to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student college enrollment. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • New partnerships established with culturally-specific organizations focused on college readiness.
  • Establishment of new culturally responsive efforts to improve Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.
  • Establishment of new family engagement efforts related to college readiness.
  • New anti-racism policies and practices established.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures related to Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.
  • Recommendations for policy solutions and investments to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.

Alignment:

  • Oregon Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Office of Indian Education
  • Oregon Alliance of Independent Colleges and Universities

OBJECTIVE: Increase attendance of Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students in four-year post-secondary institutions of education

WHY IT MATTERS:

Oregon’s four-year colleges and universities currently serve approximately 126,000 students with approximately 14 percent who are Latino/a/x and Indigenous*. A four-year degree allows students to reach their highest potentials, build trajectories to family-wage careers, foster a more just society, and break patterns of intergenerational poverty. (Oregon Higher Education Coordinating Commission)

ACTIONS

  • Identify and develop new culturally responsive efforts to increase Latino/a/x & Indigenous* student college enrollment. (People)
  • Identify and develop engagement opportunities with Latino/a/x and Indigenous* families for college readiness. (People)
  • Identify and develop educator professional development centered on anti-racism and culturally responsive approaches. (Practice)
  • Identify and develop partnerships between schools, districts, and 4-year colleges and universities to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student enrollment. (Policy)
  • Identify and develop partnerships with culturally specific organizations for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college readiness. (Policy)
  • Identify policy solutions and investments needed to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* student college enrollment. (Policy)

2-YEAR OUTCOMES

  • New partnerships established with culturally-specific organizations focused on college readiness.
  • Establishment of new culturally responsive efforts to improve Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.
  • Establishment of new family engagement efforts related to college readiness.
  • New anti-racism policies and practices established.
  • Recommendations for developing new accountability and progress measures related to Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.
  • Recommendations for policy solutions and investments to increase Latino/a/x and Indigenous* college enrollment.

Alignment:

  • Oregon Higher Education Coordinating Commission
  • Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment
  • Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion
  • Office of Indian Education
  • Oregon Alliance of Independent Colleges and Universities

Definitions

Afro-Latino/a/x means an individual from Mexican, Central American, South American, or Caribbean communities who identify with African ancestry.

Anti-racism means the process of actively identifying and opposing racism. The goal of anti-racism is to challenge racism and actively change the policies, behaviors, and beliefs that perpetuate racist ideas and actions.

Central American means an individual of descent from: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, or Panama, including Black, Afro- Latino/a/x, and Indigenous communities residing in those nations.

Community-Based Organization means a nonprofit organization that is reflective of a community or significant segments of a community it seeks to serve.

Community Voice means that members representing the community served by the project will be involved in co-constructing the project design, implementation, and/or providing strategic guidance in final decision-making.

Culturally Responsive means the implicit recognition and incorporation of the cultural knowledge and experience of students served by the plan in teaching, learning and assessment. This includes identifying and valuing: students’ cultural assets in instruction and assessment; diverse frames of reference that correspond to multifaceted cultural perspectives/ experiences; and performance styles in the classroom that do not reflect dominant values of achievement or success.

Culturally Specific Organization means an organization that serves a particular cultural community and is primarily staffed and led by members of that community; these organizations demonstrate: intimate knowledge of lived experience of the community, including but not limited to the impact of structural and individual racism or discrimination on the community; knowledge of specific disparities, barriers or challenges documented in the community and how that influences the structure of their program or service; commitment to the community’s strength-based and self-driven thriving and resilience; ability to describe and adapt their services to the community’s cultural practices, health and safety beliefs/practices, positive cultural identity/ pride, religious beliefs, etc.

DACA means Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) was an executive action taken by President Barack Obama that allowed undocumented immigrants who came to the US under the age of 16 to apply for protection from deportation. After a background check, those individuals were able to get renewable two-year permits to work and study in the US.

Disproportionate refers to unequal or inequitable differences in access and outcomes that historical and current-day White supremacy has created between certain families, children and students. What is proportionate, however, must also be critically analyzed and addressed in terms of its values, intent, and ideology.

Hispanic means a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish descent or origin regardless of race. Hispanic is a term often used by the federal government.

Indigenous means an individual from Mexican, Central American, South American, or Caribbean communities who identify with indigenous or tribal communities from those geographic regions.

Latino/a/x means a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American descent or origin regardless of race. Additionally, Latinx is used to describe non-binary genders as Spanish is inherently a gendered language.

Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Grant means a grant established by ORS 329.845.

Latino/a/x and Indigenous* Student Success Plan means the plan established by ORS 329.845 and adopted by the State Board of Education.

LGBTQ2SIA means a term that encompasses multiple gender identities and sexual orientations including Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Two-Spirit, Intersex, and Asexual. The plus sign (+) recognizes that there are myriad ways to describe gender identities and sexual orientations. It is also important to recognize that the challenges and barriers for students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer can be different from the challenges and barriers faced by students with diverse and/or expansive gender identities and expressions.

Opportunity Gap refers to the effects and disparities the dominant, White supremacist system and culture has historically, currently, and intentionally created for groups of students where factors such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, English proficiency, geography, financial wealth, gender, sexuality, familial situations, and disabilities determine or constrain what opportunities the system offers and how these affect their educational aspiration, achievement, and attainment. These effects and disparities form an educational debt that the dominant educational system owes to marginalized students as well as a need to address and shift the system itself.

Partnership means a group of organizations, Tribes, districts or individuals who agree to work together with a common interest and shared vision. In a partnership, there is a high level of trust and 2-way communication, and differences in power and privilege are addressed. Roles and responsibilities on all sides are well-defined and developed with shared authority in decision making. There might be shared space and staff, with expectations and agreements in writing.

South American means an individual of descent from: Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Falkland Island including Black, Afro- Latino/a/x, and Indigenous communities residing in those nations.

Student means a student enrolled in early childhood through post-secondary education who:

  1. Is Latino/a/x, Hispanic, Black, Afro-Latino/a/x, or Indigenous*, including individuals of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican, South American or, Central American descent; and
  2. Has experienced disproportionate results in education due to current and historical practices and policies, as identified by the State Board of Education by rule.

Underserved refers to communities, groups, families, and students that the dominant educational system has historically and currently excluded, impacted, marginalized, underserved and/or refused service due to institutionalized and intersectional racism and systemic oppression. This includes students of color, tribal students, English language learners, LGBTQ2SIA+ students, students experiencing and surviving poverty, students with special needs or disabilities, women/girls, and students from rural communities.

Undocumented refers to people who are not U.S. citizens or Permanent Residents of the United States, who do not hold a current visa to reside in the U.S. and who have not been approved for legal residency in the U.S.


Understanding the Demographics of Oregon's Hispanic/LatinX Student Populations

Race and Ethnicity

Beginning with the 2010-11 school year, the Oregon Department of Education’s (ODE) school district guidelines for collecting and reporting on race/ethnicity data in the Cumulative ADM Collections were modified to align with the U.S. Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) two-part question requirement. The OMB’s standards relating to ethnicity and Hispanic origin have considerably evolved since the Census was first devised in 1790. Currently the standards require the use of a minimum of two ethnicities, “Hispanic or Latino” and “Not Hispanic or Latino”, in collecting and reporting data.

OMB defines “Hispanic or Latino” as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. For the purposes of this data brief and to be in alignment with the Latinx and Indigenous Student Success Plan we will refer to the “Hispanic or Latino” ethnicity as “Hispanic/Latinx” which expands the inclusivity of the OMB’s definition by adding “and regardless of gender”.

Students of Hispanic/Latinx origin must be identified and reported with at least one of a minimum of five race categories:(Since 1997 the OMB standards have permitted the reporting of more than one race.) “American Indian or Alaska Native”, “Asian”, “Black or African American”, “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander”, or “White”. Regardless of the race(s) that get reported, the student is categorized as Hispanic/ Latinx. Anyone who is non-Hispanic/Latinx and reported with more than one race is categorized as Multi-Racial. As such, there are a total of seven distinct race/ethnicity categories in use for collecting and reporting data on all students in Oregon: “American Indian/Alaska Native”, “Asian”, “Black/African American”, “Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander”, “White”, “Hispanic/Latinx”, and “Multi- Racial”.

ODE has maintained these seven race/ethnicity categories in all student and staff data and reporting since the 2010-11 school year to ensure consistency and standardization across all Oregon school districts in collecting and reporting data. However it is permissible for school districts to expand both the race and ethnicity categories, provided that any new categories can be guided into one of the seven referenced above. For example, Eugene School District 4J’s enrollment form (shown below) includes an additional race category for “Non-US Native American” which must get reported to ODE as one of the other five races, and additionally their form clarifies that when race and ethnicity information is not provided the child will be reported as “non-Hispanic and multi-racial”.

race/ethnicity questionnaire

Growth and Diversity of Oregon's Hispanic/LatinX Populations

In the most recent Fall Membership report (which indicates the number of K-12 students enrolled on the first school day in October 2020), a total of 137,101 Hispanic/Latinx students were counted – representing 24.44% of Oregon’s total K-12 student population.

Although Oregon’s Hispanic/Latinx student population has typically experienced population growth, the year-to-year growth of this population has been getting smaller and smaller. Between October 2011 and October 2012 the population grew by 2.8%, and that remains the highest year-to-year growth experienced in the past decade for this population (see Table 1). Between October 2018 and October 2019 the population grew only by 1.5%, and in fact the population shrunk by -0.8% between October 2019 and October 2020 (Oregon’s non-Hispanic K-12 student population shrunk by -4.6% between October 2019 and October 2020.).

As discussed in the introduction on Race and Ethnicity, Hispanic/Latinx students may be of any race and must be reported with at least one. The percentage of Oregon’s total Hispanic/Latinx student population represented by “Two or More Races” was 7.8% in the most recent Fall Membership report. This is the lowest this percentage has been in the past 10 years (see Table 1)(Based on Population Estimates (V2019) by the Census Bureau, this percentage is even lower with “Two or More Races” population estimated to represent only 2.8% of the total U.S. Hispanic or Latino population.). This also means that Oregon’s total Hispanic/Latinx student population represented by only “One Race” was the largest it has been at 92.2%.

  Table 1. Oregon's Hispanic/LatinX Origin Student Population Trends by Total Number of Race Categories

 One Race  
  % of Total Hispanic/Latinx Student Population
  Two or More Races
  % of Total Hispanic/Latinx Student Population  
Total Hispanic/Latinx Student Population
Percentage of Total Student Population  

2011-12106,63790.4%11,3809.6%118,017
21.04%
2012-13110,009
90.6%11,3639.6%118,37221.53%
2013-14113,48291.0%
11,2199.0%124,70121.99%
2014-15116,93391.5%
10,9128.5%127,84522.40%
2015-16118,35791.5%11,0538.5%129,41022.45%
2016-17120,61592.0%10,4748.0%131,08922.64%
2017-18123,26592.1%10,5577.9%133,82223.05%
2018-19125,11391.9%11,0738.1%136,18623.41%
2019-20127,26092.0%11,0138.0%138,27323.73%
2020-21126,39992.2%10,7027.8%137,10124.44%

(Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

There are noticeable trends occurring among the Hispanic/Latinx student populations who are reported with only “One Race” (see Table 2). There are only five possible race categories (in alignment with federal reporting guidelines): American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Black/African American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or White.

Table 2. Viewing Oregon's "One Race" Hispanic/Latinx Student Populations
Race2011-122012-132013-142014-152015-162016-172017-182018-192019-202020-21
Asian472 (0.4%)521 (0.5%)502 (0.4%)516 (0.4%)566 (0.5%)599 (0.5%)637 (0.5%)656 (0.5%)725 (0.6%)762 (0.6%)
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander517 (0.5%)547 (0.5%)596 (0.5%)655 (0.6%)688 (0.6%)687 (0.6%)713 (0.6%)771 (0.6%)796 (0.6%)852 (0.7%)
Black/African American1,026 (1.0%)1,124 (1.0%)1,142 (1.0%)1,206 (1.0%)1,201 (1.0%)1,360 (1.1%)1,465 (1.2%)1,566 (1.3%)1,681 (1.3%)1,787 (1.4%)
American Indian/Alaska Native36,263 (34.0%)35,919 (32.75)34,836 (30.7%)33,931 (29.0%)33,035 (27.9%)30,682 (25.4%)28,820 (23.4%)26,821 (21.4%)24,747 (19.4%)22,365 (17.7%)
White68,359 (64.1%)71,898 (65.4%)76,406 (67.3%)80,625 (68.9%)82,867 (70.0%)87,297 (72.4%)91,630 (74.3%)95,299 (76.2)99,311 (78.0%)100,633 (79.6%)
Total "One Race" HIspanic/Latinx Student Population106,637110,009113,482116,933118,357
120,615123,265125,113127,260126,399

(Percentages are of the "One Race" Hispanic/Latinx Student Population in the given year) (Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

The population trends are more easily seen by taking a look at the year-to-year Population Changes for each of the “One Race” Hispanic/Latinx student groups. These are calculated and displayed in Table 3. The population with a reported race of American Indian/Alaska Native is strictly and dramatically decreasing each year – in particular, shrinking by -9.6% between October 2019 and October 2020. The populations are mostly increasing for any of the other “One Race” student groups (Trends for the non-Hispanic/Latinx “One Race” student population differ: only the Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander student groups have had consistent increases in their populations year to year, with exception of the declines that all five non-Hispanic/ Latinx “One Race” student groups had from 2019 to 2020.), including between October 2019 and October 2020. The largest Hispanic/Latinx student population growth is consistently occurring with the Asian, Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian, and Black/African American student groups.

Table 3. Oregon's Hispanic/Latinx Student Population by Enrolled Grades
Race2012-132013-142014-152015-162016-172017-182018-192019-202020-21
Asian+10.4%-3.6%+2.8%+9.7%+5.8%+6.3%+3.0%+10.5%+5.1%
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander+5.8%+9.0%+9.9%+5.0%-0.1%+3.8%+8.1%+3.2%+7.0%
Black/African American+9.6%+1.6%+5.6%-0.4%+13.2%+7.7%+6.9%+7.3%+6.3%
American Indian/Alaska Native-0.9%-3.0%-2.6%-2.6%-7.1%-6.1%-6.9%-7.7%-9.6%
White+5.2%+6.3%+5.5%+2.8%+5.3%+5.0%+4.0%+4.2%+1.3%

(Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

Enrolled Grade Levels

Since the 2017-18 school year, the majority of Oregon’s Hispanic/Latinx K-12 population are students enrolled in 5th through 9th grades. As of October 2020, this population represents around 41% of the total Hispanic/Latinx student population. Prior to the 2017-18 school year, the majority of the Hispanic/Latinx student population were enrolled in Kindergarten through 4th grades. These demographic changes are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4. Oregon's Hispanic/Latinx Student Population by Enrolled Grades
2011-122012-132013-142014-152015-162016-172017-182018-192019-202020-21
K-4th Grade48,978 (41.5%)50,065 (41.2%)51,452 (41.3%)52,189 (40.8%)52,005 (40.2%)51,760 (39.5%)51,411 (38.4%)50,999 (37.4%)50,900 (36.8%)49,090 (35.8%)
5th-9th Grade44,815 (38.0%)45,946 (37.9%)46,870 (37.6%)48,135 (37.7%)48,729 (37.7%)50,391 (38.4%)52,456 (39.2%)54,427 (40.0%)56,003 (40.5%)55,820 (40.7%)
10th-12th Grade24,224 (20.5%)25,361 (20.9%)26,379 (21.2%)27,521 (21.5%)28,676 (22.2%)28,938 (22.1%)29,955 (22.4%)30,760 (22.6%)31,370 (22.7%)32,191 (23.5%)
Total Hispanic/Latinx Student Population118,017121,372124,701127,845129,410131,089133,822136,186138,273137,101

(Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

The changes across these different enrolled grade groups is more visible when viewing the year-to-year population changes (see Table 5). The population changes show that the Kindergarten through 4th grade population has had declines each year since 2015. In fact, the decrease by -3.6% in the recent school year is consistent with the year to year changes calculated over the last decade.

Table 5. Hispanic/Latinx Student Grade Level Enrollment Population Change From Previous Year
2012-132013-142014-152015-162016-172017-182018-192019-202020-21
K-4th Grade2.2%2.8%1.4%-0.4%-0.5%-0.7%-0.8%-0.2%-3.6%
5th-9th Grade2.5%2.0%2.7%1.2%3.4%4.1%3.8%2.9%-0.3%
10th-12th Grade4.7%4.0%4.3%4.2%0.9%3.5%2.7%2.0%2.6%

(Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

Similarly, the 10th through 12th grade population has had smaller and smaller increases each year since 2015 and the growth by 2.6% between the most recent school years is consistent with their year to year changes.

The same cannot be said regarding the population decline between the most recent school years for Hispanic/Latinx students enrolled in grades 5th through 9th. This population’s decline by -0.3% between October 2019 and October 2020 is striking and inconsistent given their data trend over past decade. Typically this population has increased year to year, even if by smaller amounts in recent years; this population experienced their largest growth between October 2016 and October 2017, with a 4.1% increase.

These demographic changes for non-Hispanic/Latinx student populations have some slight differences. The demographics by enrolled grades (see Table 6) have stayed about the same over the last decade with the 5th through 9th grade population representing the largest proportion (currently at 40%), followed by the Kindergarten through 4th grade population (currently at 35.7%). The 10th through 12th grade population has consistently represented around 24% of the non-Hispanic/Latinx student population.

Table 7. Non-Hispanic/Latinx Student Grade Level Enrollment Population Change From Previous Year
2012-132013-142014-152015-162016-172017-182018-192019-202020-21
Kindergarten-4th Grade+0.9%+1.1%+0.8%+1.5%+0.3%-0.7%
-1.1%-0.6%-8.6%
5th-9th Grade-0.9%-0.8%-0.4%+0.6%+0.7%+1.1%+1.0%0.0%-3.0%
10th-12th Grade-0.5%-0.4%0.0%+0.4%-0.8%-1.7%-1.1%-0.2%-1.1%

(Source: ODE Fall Membership [1st Period ADM])

The sizes of these population declines for both the Kindergarten through 4th and 5th through 9th grade populations are unusually larger than would be expected given their data trends over the last decade. On average, the year to year changes for the 5th through 9th grade population has typically been quite small (near zero). And in comparison with the Hispanic/Latinx student population, the 10th through 12th grade non-Hispanic/Latinx population has mostly shrunk from year to year (rather than grow); the decline by -1.1% in the most recent school year is consistent with their year to year trend. Lastly, although the population of non-Hispanic/Latinx students enrolled in Kindergarten through 4th grades started to consistently shrink in 2017, the fact that this population plummeted by -8.6% between October 2019 and October 2020 is unexpectedly striking. (The non-Hispanic/Latinx student population’s demographic changes and trends are very similar to those obtained if one were to instead analyze Oregon’s K-12 total student population as a single group. For example, the Kindergarten through 4th grade student population has been shrinking since 2017 and declined by an unusually large percentage between October 2019 and October 2020 (-7.4%).)

Discipline Incidents by Student Group - Suspensions and Expulsions

Please note, the number of in-person school days in the 2019-20 school year was reduced due to COVID-19 and the shift to Distance Learning for All. This explains the reduction in percent of students with one of more discipline incidents in 2019-20 and the fluctuations in the below data table. We included data from the 2018-19 school year to provide discipline rates reflecting a full year of in-person learning.

The data below shows Hispanic or Latino/a/x students have a higher rate of disciplinary incidents than the average for years representing in-person and distance learning. However, other student racial groups experience higher rates of disciplinary incidents, particularly: Black/African American, American Indian/Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. This isn’t to say the higher rates for Hispanic or Latino/a/x students is inconsequential. Rather, the impacts of school discipline policies disproportionately and negatively impact students of color and so efforts to address these disparities through policy and systems change would be beneficial to all students of color.

Please use caution when comparing data across school years.

Student GroupPercent of Enrolled Students with One or More Discipline Incidents in the 2019-20 School YearStudent GroupPercent of Enrolled Students with One or More Discipline Incidents in the 2018-19 School Year
Total4.9%Total6.5%
Hispanic/Latino/a/x5.5%Hispanic/Latino/a/x7.4%
Multi-Racial5.4%
Multi-Racial7.0%
White4.5%White6.0%

(Source: 2019-20 Spring Membership Approximation, Discipline INcidents, Title III: English Learner)

(Includes only discipline incidents resulting in suspension (in school or out of school) or expulsion. Note: Multi-Racial does not include students who reported Hispanic Ethnicity – these students are all reported under Hispanic. See the Federal Race and Ethnicity Reporting Assistance Manual for more information. For more data regarding discipline incidents, please see the School Discipline, Bullying, and Restraint and Seclusion page.)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), also known as The National Center for Education Statistics within the U.S. Department of Education is responsible for carrying out NAEP. The independent, non-partisan National Assessment Governing Board oversees and sets policy for NAEP.

NAEP Reading, Grades Four and Eight, 2019

NAEP reports achievement levels and average scale scores. Average scale scores for reading are expressed on a 0-500 scale. NAEP has three achievement levels: NAEP Basic, NAEP Proficient and NAEP Advanced. The National Assessment Governing Board defines the NAEP achievement levels as follows:

  • NAEP Basic: Partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for performance at the NAEP Proficient level.
  • NAEP Proficient: Solid academic performance for each NAEP assessment. Students reaching this level have demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including subject-matter knowledge, application of such knowledge to real world situations, and analytical skills appropriate to the subject matter
  • NAEP Advanced: Superior performance beyond NAEP Proficient

NAEP Achievement Levels

2019 NAEP Grade 4 Reading Results Achievement LevelsNAEP Advanced %NAEP Proficient %NAEP Basic %Below Basic %Participating %
All StudentsOregon925303699
United States926313598*
English LearnersOregon#2148497
United States18*25*65*94*
Hispanic originOregon314305299
United States419*3146*97*
White (not of Hispanic origin)Oregon1128313199
United States1232*3124*99*

2019 NAEP Grade 8 Reading Results Achievement LevelsNAEP Advanced %NAEP Proficient %NAEP Basic %Below Basic %Participating %
All StudentsOregon529392799
United States429392898*
English LearnersOregon#1148594
United States#324*73*92
Hispanic originOregon219404098
United States120403897
White (not of Hispanic origin)Oregon534392299
United States536391998*

What this means

According to the NAEP reading assessments, Hispanic or Latino/a/x students in Oregon experience disparities in reading levels at 4th grade and 8th grade. The rates of Hispanic or Latino/a/x students reading at advanced and proficient levels is less than whites and less than all students. Additionally, the rates of students reading below basic reading levels is significantly higher. This disparity in reading levels does not improve significantly from 4th grade to 8th which indicates further efforts need to be made by schools to close this gap. This plan includes specific strategies to improve reading and numeracy between kindergarten and third grade for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.

NAEP Mathematics, Grade 4, 2019

NAEP reports achievement levels and average scale scores. Average scale scores for math are expressed on a 0-500 scale. NAEP has three achievement levels: NAEP Basic, NAEP Proficient and NAEP Advanced. The National Assessment Governing Board defines the NAEP achievement levels as follows:

  • NAEP Basic: Partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for performance at the NAEP Proficient level.
  • NAEP Proficient: Solid academic performance for each NAEP assessment. Students reaching this level have demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including subject-matter knowledge, application of such knowledge to real world situations, and analytical skills appropriate to the subject matter
  • NAEP Advanced: Superior performance beyond NAEP Proficient

NAEP Achievement Levels

2019 NAEP Grade 4 Math Results Achievement LevelsNAEP Advanced %NAEP Proficient %NAEP Basic %Below Basic %Participating %
All StudentsOregon929382599
United States932*4020*98*
English LearnersOregon#4276896
United States115*43*41*95
Hispanic originOregon316384297
United States324*45*27*97
White (not of Hispanic origin)Oregon1134381799
United States1240*3612*99

NAEP Mathematics, Grade 8, 2019

2019 NAEP Grade 8 Math Results Achievement LevelsNAEP Advanced %NAEP Proficient %NAEP Basic %Below Basic %Participating %
All StudentsOregon1022363399
United States1023353298
English LearnersOregon#1108993
United States1422*73*93
Hispanic originOregon311315598
United States316*37*43*98
White (not of Hispanic origin)Oregon1127382599
United States1330*3621*99

Achievement level results from the 2019 NAEP mathematics assessment show that larger percentages of all Oregon 4th graders, Economically Disadvantaged students, English Learners, Female students, Male students, Hispanic students, students of two or more races, and White students performed at the “Below Basic” level than their peers in the nation’s public schools. Smaller percentages of Oregon Economically Disadvantaged students, English Learners and Hispanic students scored at the “NAEP Basic” level than their peers nationally. Smaller percentages of all Oregon 4th graders, English Learners, Hispanic students, students of two or more races, and White students performed at the “NAEP Proficient” level, and a smaller percentage of Oregon students of two or more races scored at the “NAEP Advanced” level, than their peers in the nation’s public schools.

In 8th grade, larger percentages of Oregon English Learners, Hispanic students, and White students performed at the “Below Basic” level than their peers in the nation’s public schools. Smaller percentages of Oregon English Learners and Hispanic students scored at the “NAEP Basic” level, and smaller percentages of Oregon Hispanic students and White students performed at the “NAEP Proficient” level, than their peers nationally. This plan includes specific strategies to improve reading and numeracy between kindergarten and third grade for Latino/a/x and Indigenous* students.

Dropout Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Gender

Grades 9-12, 2018-19

Currently, Latino/a/x males are 63% more likely to dropout than white males while Latino/a/x females are 34% more likely to dropout than white females. Efforts and investments must ensure we address reduce attrition rates.

bar graph

Geography

These maps highlight where some of the highest counts and percentages of Latino/a/x students reside in Oregon. Significant populations are found in Eastern Oregon, particularly, Morrow, Umatilla, and Malheur counties. Other significant populations include Marion, Hood River, Washington, Multnomah, Clackamas, Jackson, Jefferson, Wasco, Lane, and Clatsop.

population map population map population map population map

Data Sources